2016-17 Catalog

Environmental Initiative

Program Directors: 

Donald Morris, Ph.D. (Colorado)  

Email: dpm2@lehigh.edu ♦  Phone: 610-758-5175                                              

Derick Brown, Ph.D. (Princeton)

Email: dgb3@lehigh.edu  ♦  Phone: 610-758-3543

Undergraduate Coordinator: 

Albert Wurth, Ph.D. (North Carolina)

Email: ahw1@lehigh.edu  ♦  Phone: 610-758-3341

Graduate Coordinator:

Karen Beck-Pooley, Ph.D.  (Penn)  

Email: kbp213@lehigh.edu ♦  Phone: 610-758-3340  

Website: http://ei.cas2.lehigh.edu/

Supported by the Office of Interdisciplinary Programs 610-758-3996; incasip@lehigh.edu
Williams Hall, 31 Williams Drive


Joint Program Faculty:

Karen Beck-Pooley, Ph.D. (Department of Political Science); David Casagrande, Ph.D. (Department of Sociology and Anthropology); John Gillroy, Ph.D. (Department of International Relations); Breena Holland, Ph.D. (Department of Political Science); Dork Sahagian, Ph.D. (Department of Earth and Environmental Science)

Core Faculty:

Benjamin Felzer, Ph.D. (Department of Earth and Environmental Science); Sharon Friedman, Ph.D. (Department of Journalism and Communication);  John Gatewood, Ph.D. (Department of Sociology and Anthropology); Donald Morris, Ph.D. (Department of Earth and Environmental Science); Mark Orrs,Ph.D. (Department of Political Science)and Director, Sustainable Development Program;  Joan Ramage Macdonald, Ph.D. (Department of Earth and Environmental Science); Cameron Wesson, Ph.D. (Department of Sociology and Anthropology); Al Wurth, Ph.D. (Department of Political Science)

Affiliated Faculty:

Kelly Austin, Ph.D. (Department of Sociology and Anthropology); Alec Bodzin, Ph.D. (Department of Education and Human Services); Derick Brown, Ph.D. (Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering); Kristen Jellison, Ph.D. (Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering); Frank Pazzaglia, Ph.D. (Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences);  Arup SenGupta, Ph.D. (Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering); Tara Troy, Ph.D. (Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering); Todd Watkins, Ph.D. (Department of Economics); Richard Weisman, Ph.D. (Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering)


The Environmental Initiative is a broadly interdisciplinary program of education, research, and outreach. The curricula include courses in four colleges and 10 departments in social sciences, humanities, education, science, mathematics and engineering. Earth and Environmental Sciences and Civil and Environmental Engineering are core Departments in the program.

Undergraduate Studies

The Environmental Studies BA program examines the cultural, economic, historical, communication, political and social factors that influence local, national, international and global environmental issues and policies. Investigating a wide range of perspectives, it includes a broad exposure to many factors confronting humans as they struggle with complex problems and possible solutions to environmental questions.

The program has been designed so students will develop a broad understanding of social science environmental concerns, along with a basic familiarity with environmental science, statistics and research methods. Of benefit to all students interested in environmental issues, this B.A. degree complements existing B.A. and B.S. programs in Earth and Environmental Sciences and the B.S. program in Environmental Engineering. The B.A. program is intended for students who are interested in environmental affairs from the perspective of the social sciences and humanities. This degree will prepare students for a variety of career options including positions in policy agencies at the federal, state and local government levels, corporate management, nonprofit organizations, environmental journalism, environmental education or environmental law. It also will prepare students for graduate studies in a number of environmental policy and social science fields. The B.A. is specifically designed to be broadly inclusive yet flexible enough to allow for double majors and minors in other fields. Double majors or minors in social science fields such as anthropology, communication, history, international relations, journalism, political science, psychology, science and environmental writing or sociology could easily be accomplished. Minors in the sciences, such as Earth and Environmental Sciences, also can be completed. If students are not pursuing a double major, a minor in another field to complement the Environmental Studies major is highly recommended but not required.

The major consists of five required and a choice of three core courses, plus three elective courses chosen from a list that follows. The B.A. is considered a social science major and most of its courses fulfill college social science distribution requirements. Its collateral requirements, which include a social science research methods course, one course in statistics and two science courses, can be used to fulfill college math and science distribution requirements.

Program Honors

To graduate with honors, a major in Environmental Studies must maintain a 3.2 overall average, attain a 3.5 average in the courses constituting the major program, and complete an honors thesis in the senior year.

Environmental Studies Major 

Required Courses
ES 001Introduction to Environmental Studies4
ES/EES 002Introduction to Environmental Science3
ES/EES 004The Science of Environmental Issues1
ES/POLS 105Environmental Policy and Planning4
ES 381Senior Seminar: Issues in Environmental Studies4
Core Courses
Select at least three of the following:10-12
Environmental Values and Ethics
Environment and Culture
Environment, the Public and the Mass Media
Environmental Risk Assessment
American Environmental History
Electives
Select 12 credits from the elective list below or in consultation with the program director. 1,212
Collateral Requirements
MATH 012Basic Statistics 34
SOAN 111Research Methods and Data Analysis4
Select at least one EES and one other science course (6-8) credits OR a minor in EES (see EES program descriptions)6-8
Total Credits52-56
1

12 credits including 1 course at the 200 level or above. Additional core courses can be used to fulfill this requirement.

2
At least 2 courses from the major electives courses must be applied towards the major electives requirement. In addition, new courses may be offered annually. Students should check with the program director for an updated list.
3

A calculus course may be substituted with permission of the program director.

Elective Courses

Major Electives
ANTH 145Human Evolution4
ANTH 305Anthropology Of Fishing4
ECO 211Introduction to Environmental Economics3
ECO 311Environmental Economics3
EES 089Geographic Analysis of our Changing World3
EES/CEE 379Environmental Case Studies3-4
EES 386Wetland Ecology3,4
ES 010Environment and the Consumer Society4
ES 104Political and Environmental Geography4
ES/POLS 107The Politics of the Environment4
ES/JOUR 115Communicating about the Environment4
ES/JOUR/HMS 117Environmental Health Risks and the Media4
ES/EMC/CEE 171Fundamentals of Environmental Technology4
ES/REL/ASIA 254Buddhism and Ecology4
ES/POLS 305Seminar: Urban Policy and Planning4
ES/POLS 311Environmental Valuation for Policy Design4
ES/POLS 312Urban Environmental Policy Workshop4
ES/SOC 321Information Ecology4
ES/JOUR/STS/HMS 323Health and Environmental Controversies4
ES/POLS 328U.S. Politics and the Environment4
ES 331Environmental Law I: Pollution & Risk Abatement4
ES/IR 333International Environmental Law & Policy4
ES 338Environmental Risk4
ES/IR 342International Law and Policy Design4
ES/IR 343Comparative Environmental Law & Policy3,4
ES/ANTH 352Environmental Archaeology4
ES/POLS 355Environmental Justice and the Law4
ES/TLT 367Environmental Education3
ES/TLT 368Teaching and Learning with Geospatial Tools3
ES/SOC/GS 370Globalization and the Environment4
ES/POLS 375Seminar: Green Polity4
ES 391Honors Thesis1-4
IR 344International Politics of Oil4
JOUR 123Basic Science and Technical Writing4
POLS 338Markets, Justice, And Law3,4
POLS 348Land Use, Growth Management, and the Politics of Sprawl3-4
REL 006Religion and Ecological Crisis4
SDEV 010Challenges of Sustainable Development4
Additional Electives that may be used to fulfill the major elective requirement
ANTH/GS/AAS 324Globalization and Development in Africa4
ECO 303Economic Development3
EES 318Geographic Analysis in EES3,4
EES 325Remote Sensing of Terrestrial and Aquatic Environments3,4
ENTP/SDEV/IR 307International Social Entrepreneurship4
ENTP/POLS 310Social Entrepreneurship: How to Change the World4
ES 093Freshmen Supervised Internship in the Environmental Initiative1-2
ES 123Sustainability in Action I1-4
ES 124Sustainability in Action II1-4
ES 131Internship1-2
ES 181Independent Study1-4
ES 223Advanced Sustainability in Action I1-4
ES 224Advanced Sustainability in Action II1-4
ES 293Supervised Internship in the Environmental Initiative1-4
ES/SDEV 310Foundations of Sustainable Development Practice4
ES/POLS 314Urban Agriculture Policy, Planning and Practice4
ES 371Special Topics1-4
POLS 321Research In Political Science4
POLS/GS/WGSS 342Gender and Third World Development3-4
POLS 363Public Opinion Research4
SDEV 122Sustainable Dev:CR Experience3
SDEV 201Sustainable Development Solutions, I3
SDEV 202Sustainable Development Solutions, II2-4
SDEV 203Research in Sustainable Development2-4
SDEV 372Independent Study in Sustainable Development1-4
SOC/GS 319The Political Economy of Globalization4
SOC/HMS/GS 322Global Health Issues4

Minor in Environmental Studies

A minor in Environmental Studies consists of four 4-credit courses, for a total of 16 credits. At least one course must be at the 300-level.  To declare a minor in Environmental Studies, students must complete a minor declaration form. 

ES 001Introduction to Environmental Studies4
One course from the required or core set of courses for the major4
Two courses from either the core or elective courses for the major8
Total Credits16

Minor in Sustainable development

The minor in Sustainable Development consists of a minimum of at least 15 hours of study that includes a combination of core courses and approved electives. Minors are required to complete a total of 8 core credits (SDEV 010 Challenges of Sustainable Development,  and SDEV 202 Sustainable Development Solutions, II) or (SDEV 010 Challenges of Sustainable Development and SDEV 203 Research in Sustainable Development).  The remaining 7 credits may be selected from the Additional Course Electives listed below or in consultation with the Program Director.  Completion of ECO 001 Principles of Economics is a prerequisite for enrollment in the Sustainable Development minor, except for those for whom the program director waives the prerequisite.   To declare a minor in Sustainable Development, students must complete a minor declaration form
 
Core Courses8
Challenges of Sustainable Development
and Sustainable Development Solutions, I
and Sustainable Development Solutions, II
or
Challenges of Sustainable Development
and Research in Sustainable Development
Additional Core Electives7
Microfinance: Financial Inclusion for the Poor
International Social Entrepreneurship
Sustainable Dev:CR Experience
Foundations of Sustainable Development Practice
Independent Study in Sustainable Development
Anthropology Of Fishing
Globalization and Development in Africa
Global Food Systems
 

M.A. Environmental Policy Design

The graduate Environmental Policy Design (EPD) Program at Lehigh University provides an intensive study of policy design and analysis. It continues to offer the concentration in Environmental Policy and Law that has been the centerpiece of the program since its inception, but two new concentrations in Sustainable Development and Urban Environmental Policy have been added.  These new concentrations recognize activities that have already been underway in the EPD program and take advantage of the expertise of new faculty who have recently joined the College of Arts and Sciences. Students graduating from the EPD program with the MA degree will have the opportunity to earn a graduate certificate in one of these three sub-disciplines: Environmental Policy & Law, Urban Environmental Policy, and Sustainable Development.

The EPD program has established three separate tracks through the master’s degree. These include the traditional thesis track, the Community Fellows track (coursework only) and the internship track (coursework only).  The new internship track was developed to better prepare our graduates for careers in the discipline, and takes advantage of our relationship with a number of government and non-government organizations, including the UN's Division for Sustainable Development where we have placed a number of EPD students. Financial aid is available.

Applicants for the MAEPD will be placed into one of three tracks (Thesis, Internship or Community Fellows).

Core Courses 19
Philosophical-Policy and Environmental Legal Design
Scientific Foundations for Environmental Policy Design
Socio-cultural Foundations of Environmental Policy Design
Skills/Methods Course Requirement3-6
Environmental Risk Assessment
Qualitative Research Methods
Geographic Analysis in EES
Remote Sensing of Terrestrial and Aquatic Environments
Teaching and Learning with Geospatial Tools
Research In Political Science
Public Opinion Research
Methods Of Policy Analysis
Research Methods
Statistics for Sociological Inquiry
Advanced Research Methods, Part I: Quantitative
Adv Research Methods, Part II, Qualitative
Elective Courses15
Globalization and Development in Africa
Economic Development
International Social Entrepreneurship
Seminar: Urban Policy and Planning
Foundations of Sustainable Development Practice
Environmental Valuation for Policy Design
Urban Environmental Policy Workshop
Urban Agriculture Policy, Planning and Practice
ES/SOC 421
U.S. Environmental Law I: Pollution and Risk Abatement
International Environmental Law & Policy
International Law and Policy Design
Comparative Environmental Law & Policy
Environmental Justice & The Law
Seminar: Green Polity
Social Entrepreneurship: How to Change the World
Gender and Third World Development
Land Use, Growth Management, and the Politics of Sprawl
American Environmental Policy
Political Economy
The Political Economy of Globalization
Global Health Issues
Global Food Systems
Women and Health
Tracks3-6
Thesis track 2
Thesis
Internship Track 3
Internship in Environmental Policy
Community Fellows Track 4
a one year Master’s Program in which students work for 15 hours a week in a non-profit organization as part of their academic experience. Please see the program website at www.lehigh.edu/communityfellows.
Community Fellowship I
Community Fellowship II
1

Electives selected from approved list may include one additional course (up to a total of 6 credit hours) from the Skills/Methods category of required courses.  Students are urged to select electives which allow for concentrated study in a particular area of academic interest.

2

Required courses (12 credits) + Elective courses (12-15 credits) + ES 490 Thesis  (3-6 credits) = Total 27-33 credits

3

Required courses (12 credits) + Elective courses (15 credits) + ES 480 Internship in Environmental Policy (3-6 credits) = Total 30-33 credits

4

Required courses (12 credits) + Elective courses (12 credits) + POLS 464 Community Fellowship I (3 credits) + POLS 465 Community Fellowship II (3 credits) = 30 credits

CONCENTRATIONS WITHIN MAEPD

The MAEPD program provides students the opportunity to concentrate in a variety of areas of academic and/or professional interest.  In the table below are examples of three possible concentrations that are especially suited to faculty expertise and program resources.   A total of 12-15 credits of electives comprise each concentration, plus a related internship experience or thesis topic. The EPD graduate would be eligible to receive a “Graduate Certificate” in one of these concentration areas (see certificate program below).

Concentration in Urban Environmental Policy and Planning
Seminar: Urban Policy and Planning
Urban Environmental Policy Workshop
Urban Agriculture Policy, Planning and Practice
Environmental Justice & The Law
Land Use, Growth Management, and the Politics of Sprawl
American Environmental Policy
Concentration in Environmenal Law and Policy
Domestic and International)
Environmental Valuation for Policy Design
U.S. Environmental Law I: Pollution and Risk Abatement
International Environmental Law & Policy
International Law and Policy Design
Comparative Environmental Law & Policy
Environmental Justice & The Law
Seminar: Green Polity
American Environmental Policy
Political Economy
Concentration in Sustainable Development
Globalization and Development in Africa
Economic Development
Foundations of Sustainable Development Practice
Urban Agriculture Policy, Planning and Practice
Social Entrepreneurship: How to Change the World
Gender and Third World Development
Land Use, Growth Management, and the Politics of Sprawl
International Social Entrepreneurship
The Political Economy of Globalization
Global Health Issues
Global Food Systems
Gender and Health

Graduate Certificate PROGRAMS

Each certificate requires a minimum of 12 credit hours (4 courses) from the elective list specific to each area of study.   A graduate of the EPD program is only eligible to receive ONE of the following certificates. Certificate courses can be counted towards MAEPD, as appropriate and must be completed in a maximum of 3 years. 

Environmental Law and Policy

Core Course3
Philosophical-Policy and Environmental Legal Design
Socio-cultural Foundations of Environmental Policy Design
Elective Courses 19
Select any three of the following:
Environmental Valuation for Policy Design
U.S. Environmental Law I: Pollution and Risk Abatement
International Environmental Law & Policy
International Law and Policy Design
Comparative Environmental Law & Policy
Environmental Justice & The Law
Seminar: Green Polity
American Environmental Policy
Political Economy
Total Credits12
1

 Additional courses selected in consultation with the program adviser may fulfill program requirements.  No more than 6 credits can be taken at the 300 level.

Urban Environmental Policy and Planning

Core Course3
Socio-cultural Foundations of Environmental Policy Design
Elective Courses 19
Urban Environmental Policy Workshop
Urban Agriculture Policy, Planning and Practice
Environmental Justice & The Law
Land Use, Growth Management, and the Politics of Sprawl
American Environmental Policy
Total Credits12
1

 Additional courses selected in consultation with the program adviser may fulfill program requirements.  No more than 6 credits can be taken at the 300 level.

Sustainable Development

Core Courses6
Socio-cultural Foundations of Environmental Policy Design
Socio-cultural Foundations of Environmental Policy Design
Foundations of Sustainable Development Practice
Elective Courses 16
Globalization and Development in Africa
Economic Development
Urban Agriculture Policy, Planning and Practice
International Social Entrepreneurship
Social Entrepreneurship: How to Change the World
Gender and Third World Development
Land Use, Growth Management, and the Politics of Sprawl
Global Health Issues
The Political Economy of Globalization
Global Food Systems
Women and Health
1

 Additional courses selected in consultation with the program adviser may fulfill program requirements.  No more than 6 credits can be taken at the 300 level.

Courses

ES 001 Introduction to Environmental Studies 4 Credits

Gateway to the field of Environmental Studies, the course surveys central issues and themes confronting humanity in the natural world on a national and global basis. Topics include humankind’s role in environmental change; society’s response to the dynamism of nature; cultural evaluations of nature; population dynamics; resource availability and pollution sinks; land use patterns; sustainability and consumerism; environmental justice and ethics; policy and planning. This course fulfills a social science credit requirement. Please select ES 002 to fulfill the natural science requirement.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 002 (EES 002) Introduction to Environmental Science 3 Credits

Focuses on natural and human-induced drivers and consequences of environmental change. Exploring options for mitigating and adapting to environmental change in ecosystems, physical and social systems, we will examine such topics as biogeochemical cycles, population pressure, ecosystem diversity, productivity and food security, energy, water resources, climate change, pollution, ozone, urban issues and sustainability. Stresses interactions and interrelationships, using a series of case studies. Intended for any student with an interest in the environment. May be combined with EES 022.
Attribute/Distribution: NS

ES 004 The Science of Environmental Issues 1 Credit

Analysis of current environmental issues from a scientific perspective. The focus on the course will be weekly discussions based on assigned readings.
Prerequisites: EES 002 or ES 002 or EES 028 or GCP 002 or EES 011 or EES 012 or EES 014 or EES 015 or EES 016 or IR 016 or EES 021 or EES 024 or EES 025 or EES 026 or GCP 026 or EES 027 or GCP 027 or GCP 028 or EES 089 or EES 090 or EES 022
Can be taken Concurrently: EES 002, ES 002, EES 028, GCP 002, EES 011, EES 012, EES 014, EES 015, EES 016, IR 016, EES 021, EES 024, EES 025, EES 026, GCP 026, EES 027, GCP 027, GCP 028, EES 089, EES 090, EES 022
Attribute/Distribution: NS

ES 010 Environment and the Consumer Society 4 Credits

Is there such a thing as sustainable consumption, or will life on Earth become increasingly imbalanced? Will our grandchildren accuse us of “devouring” their future? This multidisciplinary course investigates these issues, both locally and globally from the perspectives of anthropology, history, communication and politics. Topics include cultural causes of and responses to past environmental disasters; biological and cultural limits to growth; overfishing the commons; resources and land use issues; communication in a consumer culture; and politics and governmental regulations. Team projects researching the environmental impacts of campus consumption will be included.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 093 Freshmen Supervised Internship in the Environmental Initiative 1-2 Credits

Experiential learning opportunities supervised by EI faculty including fieldwork, data collection or analysis, literature review, and information management. Consent of supervising faculty is required. The experience may be related to either environmental studies or environmental science depending upon the discipline of supervising faculty member.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: HU, NS, SS

ES 100 Earth Systems Science 4 Credits

Examination of the Earth as an integrated system. Study of interactions and feedbacks between key components such as the atmosphere, geo-sphere, and hydrosphere to permit better understanding of the behavior of the system as a whole. Response of the Earth system to human perturbations such as land use and emissions are explored in the context of predictions of future environmental conditions and their projected impacts back on human systems. Lectures, class discussions, and recitation.
Prerequisites: (EES 022)
Attribute/Distribution: NS

ES 104 Political and Environmental Geography 4 Credits

Geographical foundations of political phenomena and human impacts on the environment. Global focus on geographic influences on growth and development of states and empires, the nature and impact of borders, how people have altered pattern of climate, hydrology, land forms soils, and biota.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 105 (POLS 105) Environmental Policy and Planning 4 Credits

Analysis of the framework that has been established to protect the environment and promote sustainable growth. Focus on the roles of the different branches of the U.S. government and the relative responsibilities of state and local governments within this framework. Consideration of the political nature of environmental issues and the social forces influencing environmental protection in different areas of domestic environmental policy, such as climate change, toxic waste disposal and natural resources conservation.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 106 (POLS 106) Environmental Values and Ethics 4 Credits

An introduction to the ethical perspectives and values that shape human relationships to the natural environment in contemporary society. What are the moral implications of these relationships for justice and human collective action? Given these implications, what policy responses to environmental problems are morally or politically justifiable? In answering these questions, the course explores ethical ideas developed in different schools of environmental thought, such as deep ecology and eco-feminism, in addition to ideas that emerge from social movements, such as environmental justice and bioregionalism.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 107 The Politics of the Environment 4 Credits

A survey of the major environmental, resource, energy and population problems of modern society, focusing on the United States. The politics of people’s relationship with nature, the political problems of ecological scarcity and public goods, and the response of the American political system to environmental issues.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 111 Introduction to Environmental Economics 4 Credits

An examination of the interactions between our economic systems and the environment. Pollution as a consequence of human activity within a framework for analyzing the relationships between environmental quality, scarcity of resources and economic growth. How to develop appropriate public policies to deal with these issues.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 115 (JOUR 115) Communicating about the Environment 4 Credits

Introduction to the need for and ways to communicate about environmental issues to laypersons, government officials, journalists, members of the judiciary and technical experts. Explores case studies of good and bad communication about environmental issues. Internet communication, including the efficacy of placing governmental reports and databases on the Web for public consumption, will be evaluated.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 117 (HMS 117, JOUR 117) Environmental Health Risks and the Media 4 Credits

This course explores the risks and effects of environmental contamination on human health and behavior as well as the role of the mass media in alerting citizens to potential environmental health risks. Environmental topics vary but usually include air and water pollution, endocrine disrupters and radioactive waste.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 121 (ANTH 121) Environment and Culture 4 Credits

Impact of environment upon cultural variability and change. Comparative study of modern and past cultures and their environments as well as current theories of human/environmental interaction.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 123 Sustainability in Action I 1-4 Credits

First half of a year-long experiential learning program for students to engage with sustainability in both general theory and applied practices. Students will learn the political, economic and social effects of changing earth systems through a global, national and local lens. Students will explore the multitude of challenges posed by increasing natural resource consumption, inequitable distribution of wealth and rapid uneven globalization. Most importantly, students will engage the Lehigh community and broader community in developing and implementing practical solutions to creating a more sustainable and just world. Offered in coordination with the Campus Eco-Reps program. Instructor permission required.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.

ES 124 Sustainability in Action II 1-4 Credits

Continuation of ES 123 Sustainability in Action I; second half of a year-long experiential learning program for students to engage with sustainability in both general theory and applied practices. Students will learn the political, economic and social effects of changing earth systems through a global, national and local lens. Students will explore the multitude of challenges posed by increasing natural resource consumption, inequitable distribution of wealth and rapid uneven globalization. Most importantly, students will engage the Lehigh community and broader community in developing and implementing practical solutions to creating a more sustainable and just world. Students in ES 124 expand the scope and scale of sustainability projects and activities piloted in ES 123. Offered in coordination with the Campus Eco-Reps program. Instructor permission required.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.

ES 125 (JOUR 125) Environment, the Public and the Mass Media 4 Credits

Extensive exploration of local, national and international environmental problems and their social, political and economic impacts. Analysis of mass media coverage of complex environmental issues and the media’s effects on public opinion and government environmental policies. Examination of environmental journalism principles and practices in the United States and around the world.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 131 Internship 1-2 Credits

Practical experience in the application of environmental studies for both on- and off-campus organizations. is designed to provide credit for supervised experiential learning experiences. Consent of program director required.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: ND

ES 171 (CEE 171, CHE 171, EMC 171) Fundamentals of Environmental Technology 4 Credits

Pollution control technologies and how they work for water, air and solid wastes. Assessment and management of risk as applied to remediation of contaminated wastes. Role of life cycle analysis of products in risk reduction. Emphasis on technologies leading to sustainable environment. Government policies and regulations, including litigation and Best Engineering Practices. Must have completed a course designated as NS. Not available to students in RCEAS.

ES 181 Independent Study 1-4 Credits

Directed readings or research on an Environmental Studies topic. Consent of program director required.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: HU, SS

ES 223 Advanced Sustainability in Action I 1-4 Credits

Leadership and coordination of Sustainability in Action projects and activities for students in ES 123. Experienced students who have completed the year-long Sustainability in Action sequence (ES 123 and ES 124) continue in course coordination role. Offered in coordination with the Campus Eco-Reps Program. Consent of instructor required.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Prerequisites: ES 123 and ES 124

ES 224 Advanced Sustainability in Action II 1-4 Credits

Continuation of ES 223. Leadership and coordination of Sustainability in Action projects and activities for students in ES 124. Experienced students who have completed the year-long Sustainability in Action sequence (ES 123 and ES 124) continue in course coordination role. Offered in coordination with the Campus Eco-Reps Program. Consent of instructor required.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Prerequisites: ES 123 and ES 124 and ES 223

ES 254 (ASIA 254, REL 254) Buddhism and Ecology 4 Credits

Buddhism's intellectual, ethical, and spiritual resources and rexamined in light of contemporary environmental problems. Is Buddhism the most green of the major world religions? What are the moral implications of actions that affect the environment?
Attribute/Distribution: HU

ES 293 Supervised Internship in the Environmental Initiative 1-4 Credits

Experiential learning opportunities supervised by EI faculty including fieldwork, data collection or analysis, literature review, and information management. The experience may be related to either environmental studies or environmental science depending upon the discipline of supervising faculty member. The students should collaborate with faculty to develop a work plan that describes the credits requested as well as the activities included in the internship and expected outcomes. Consent of supervising faculty is required.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Prerequisites: ES 093
Attribute/Distribution: HU, NS, SS

ES 305 (POLS 305) Seminar: Urban Policy and Planning 4 Credits

This course is an introductory planning course, with an emphasis on housing and community development policy. It will examine historical and contemporary aspects of urban politics; the economic, demographic, and spatial evolution of American cities; and various urban problems, such as the spatial mismatch between people and jobs, housing quality and affordability, and residential segregation. Finally, the course will review how planners have addressed conditions in cities and regions over time.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 310 (SDEV 310) Foundations of Sustainable Development Practice 4 Credits

The broad goal of this course is to introduce students to the foundations of key sectoral and thematic knowledge for important challenges to sustainable development: food and nutritional security, social service delivery, energy policy, water resource management, urbanization, infrastructure, human rights, biodiversity, adaption to climate change, mitigating GHGs, sustainable business, good governance, and more. Through the Global Classroom we will do this together virtually with academic partners from around the world.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 311 (POLS 311) Environmental Valuation for Policy Design 4 Credits

Seminar on how to value the environment for the purpose of designing and analyzing environmental policies. Review of the "contingent valuation method" currently used to price environmental resources, and assessment of this method's empirical and normative strengths and weaknesses. Evaluation of "deliberative monetary valuation" as an improved method for environmental assessment. Consideration of non-monetary approaches to environmental valuation as alternatives to understanding the environment's relationship to human well-being in policy contexts.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 312 (POLS 312) Urban Environmental Policy Workshop 4 Credits

An urban environmental planning and policy course in which students explore an issue affecting the local community, evaluate current policy responses and possible alternatives, and present recommendations to public officials, local organizations, and community members. Student research and analysis will draw on primary and secondary data, as well as feedback from conducting individual interviews, focus groups, and community meetings. Prior projects include determining how Bethlehem's new City Revitalization improvement Zone (CRIZ) might best benefit the South Side of Bethlehem, PA.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 314 (POLS 314) Urban Agriculture Policy, Planning and Practice 4 Credits

Review of urban agriculture and greening programs in growing social movement to strengthen neighborhoods, promote healthier living, and create localized and sustainable food economies. Students consider these programs in relation to national farm policy and develop urban agriculture projects with community partners. Case studies illustrate how improving food access, beautifying vacant land, and reducing farm-to-table distances, are creatively and successfully combined. Students will receive hands-on gardening and farming experience at a community garden.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 315 (HIST 315) American Environmental History 3,4 Credits

Relationship between Americans and their natural environment from the colonial period to the present: impact of European settlement, attributes toward wilderness, role of technological development, rise of preservation and conservation movements, establishment of national parks, recent environmental protection legislation.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 321 (SOC 321) Information Ecology 4 Credits

Information theory, critical social theory, and ecological principles are combined to model how information organizes human ecosystems. These concepts are applied to enviromental policy analysis using base studies.

ES 323 (HMS 323, JOUR 323, STS 323) Health and Environmental Controversies 4 Credits

Exploration of health and environmental controversies from the perspectives of scientific uncertainty and mass media coverage. Examines genetic engineering, biotechnology, environmental health risks, and nanotechnology. Includes discussion of ethical and social responsibilities and interactions with the public.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 328 (POLS 328) U.S. Politics and the Environment 4 Credits

An examination of contemporary American politics and policy dealing with environmental issues. Current controversies in the legislative and regulatory areas will be covered to examine environmental issues and the political process. Significant portions of the course readings will be taken from government publications.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 331 Environmental Law I: Pollution & Risk Abatement 4 Credits

This course studies the practical reality of environmental regulation as codified law. It also aims at understanding the law’s foundation in argument and justification as both existing law and proposed policy through the use of cases, statutes, and regulations on air, water, risk, waste and environmental impact. Utilizing two legal paradigms for charting the relationship between humanity and nature, it examines a wide range of environmental law as well as ethical, political, economic, scientific, and policy dimensions.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 333 (IR 333) International Environmental Law & Policy 4 Credits

This course examines the basic international legal setting for the protection and management of the global environment. It examines how international law concerning nature is made and applied, the role of international environmental regimes or institutions, enforcement strategies, and compliance mechanisms. Emphasis will be placed on a review of various regulatory regimes for the protection of the global commons, including the history and legal sources of the Global Climate Change Convention.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 338 Environmental Risk 4 Credits

Starting with the distinction between traditional pollution problems and environmental risk, this course examines the policy and legal implications of its unique characteristics.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 342 (IR 342) International Law and Policy Design 4 Credits

Beginning in the 13th Century, this course traces the various philosophical, historical, and policy design arguments that have been used to explain, justify, and influence the evolution of the rule of law between states (ius gentium).
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 343 (IR 343) Comparative Environmental Law & Policy 3,4 Credits

This course studies the different ways in which domestic legal systems handle the regulation of humanity’s relationship to the natural world. The first part of the course concentrates on comparative law that examines the evolution of distinct types of legal systems from their origins in the ancient world. The second part of the course specifically and comparatively examines environmental law as it has developed in Canada, China, the European Union and the United States. Ranges of alternatives for environmental law and policy as practiced in various parts of the world will be explored.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 352 (ANTH 352) Environmental Archaeology 4 Credits

This course reviews the various categories of archaeological data used to examine the nature of past human-environmental relationships. We will explore how archaeologists use data to recognize anthropogenic and natural environmental changes, as well as cultural adaptations to local environments.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 355 (POLS 355) Environmental Justice and the Law 4 Credits

This course explores the various ways in which environmental law and policy can have discriminatory effects. It examines the rise and evolution of the environmental justice movement, and the impact of environmental justice claims on administrative rulemaking at both the state and federal level. Reviewing the history of case law concerning environmental justice suits filed under the 1964 Civil Rights Act, it also examines the future of environmental justice in environmental law and policy.
Prerequisites: POLS 105 or ES 105
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 367 (TLT 367) Environmental Education 3 Credits

Introductory environmental education course designed to prepare students to implement environmental education opportunities in formal and non-formal education settings. Topics include history and philosophy of environmental education, environmental laws and regulations, GIS, environmental issues and decision making, curriculum integration and environmental education teaching methodologies. This is a Web enhanced containing both online and fieldwork components.

ES 368 (TLT 368) Teaching and Learning with Geospatial Tools 3 Credits

Exploration of geospatial tools, including but not limited to global positioning systems (GPS), geographic information systems (GIS), and related visualization tools (e.g., Google Earth). Application of these tools and techniques to instructional settings, including appropriate pedagogy and assessment.

ES 370 (GS 370, SOC 370) Globalization and the Environment 4 Credits

This course investigates globalization and the environment including how globalization has influenced society-nature relationships, as well as how environmental conditions influence the globalization processes. A key focus will be on the rapidly evolving global economic and political systems that characterize global development dynamics therefore resource use. Particular attention is paid to the role of multi-national corporations, international trade, and finance patterns and agreements. Questions related to consumption, population, global climate change, toxic wastes, and food production/distribution represent key themes.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 371 Special Topics 1-4 Credits

Intensive, research-oriented study of a subject or issue in Environmental Studies not covered in other courses. For students of demonstrated ability and adequate preparation. Consent of program director required.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: HU, SS

ES 375 (POLS 375) Seminar: Green Polity 4 Credits

Development of guidelines and applications for public policy and political action directed toward environmental sustainability and political feasibility. Focus on problem-solving and policy design, connecting sustainable environmental goals with workable and responsive institutional designs.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 381 Senior Seminar: Issues in Environmental Studies 4 Credits

Advanced seminar focusing on discussion and research on specialized subjects in Environmental Studies. Subject matter varies from semester to semester. Intended for Environmental Studies majors and minors but open to others. Consent of program director.
Prerequisites: ES 001 or ES 002
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 391 Honors Thesis 1-4 Credits

Directed undergraduate research thesis required of students who apply and qualify for graduation with program honors. Consent of program director required.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: HU, SS

ES 401 Philosophical-Policy and Environmental Legal Design 3 Credits

A basic class for graduate students on the idea of policy design, as opposed to standard economic analysis of public policy and its application to various domestic and international environmental dilemmas. The course will also introduce the idea of Philosophical-Policy, or the use of integrated philosophical systems to justify specific policy design arguments, through the use of two distinct theoretical paradigms that focus on, specifically, the integrity of the natural environment and the capabilities of humans in relation to ecosystems.

ES 402 (EES 402) Scientific Foundations for Environmental Policy Design 3 Credits

This course explores the science behind the environmental issues that bear on the policy process at local, national and global scales. It delves into the science of selected environmental issues that have either arisen from anthropogenic activities, or that impact social systems, or that help policy makers understand the consequences of different policy options. The course will consist of readings and discussions of timely topics and one major project.
Attribute/Distribution: NS

ES 404 (SOC 404) Socio-cultural Foundations of Environmental Policy Design 3 Credits

This course is based on the premise that social and ecological sustainability require new policy approaches. Drawing on social, organizational, and behavioral theory, students will learn techniques for analyzing and critiquing existing environmental policies and designing more effective policies. Case studies highlight how cultural values, social norms, public opinion and politics shape policies and their outcomes. We examine the entire policy process from how environmental problems are defined, to how organizations implement policies and how policies are evaluated.

ES 405 (POLS 405) Seminar: Urban Policy and Planning 3 Credits

This course is an introductory planning course, with an emphasis on housing and community development policy. It will examine historical and contemporary aspects of urban politics; the economic, demographic, and spatial evolution of American cities; and various urban problems, such as the spatial mismatch between people and jobs, housing quality and affordability, and residential segregation. Finally, the course will review how planners have addressed conditions in cities and regions over time.

ES 410 Foundations of Sustainable Development Practice 3 Credits

The broad goal of this course is to introduce students to the foundations of key sectoral and thematic knowledge for important challenges to sustainable development: food and nutritional security, social service delivery, energy policy, water resource management, urbanization, infrastructure, human rights, biodiversity, adaption to climate change, mitigating GHGs, sustainable business, good governance, and more. Through the Global Classroom, an approach pioneered by Columbia University and the Global Masters of Development Practice Association (http://globalmdp.org/), we will do this together virtually with.

ES 411 (POLS 411) Environmental Valuation for Policy Design 3 Credits

Seminar on how to value the environment for the purpose of designing and analyzing environmental policies. Review of the "contingent valuation method" currently used to price environmental resources, and assessment of this method's empirical and normative strengths and weaknesses. Evaluation of "deliberative monetary valuation" as an improved method for environmental assessment. Consideration of non-monetary approaches to environmental valuation as alternatives to understanding the environment's relationship to human well-being in policy contexts.

ES 412 (POLS 412) Urban Environmental Policy Workshop 3 Credits

An urban environmental planning and policy course in which students explore an issue affecting the local community, evaluate current policy responses and possible alternatives, and present recommendations to public officials, local organizations, and community members. Student research and analysis will draw on primary and secondary data, as well as feedback from conducting individual interviews, focus groups, and community meetings. Prior projects include determining how Bethlehem's new City Revitalization improvement Zone (CRIZ) might best benefit the South Side of Bethlehem, PA.

ES 414 (POLS 414) Urban Agriculture Policy, Planning and Practice 3 Credits

Review of urban agriculture and greening programs in growing social movement to strengthen neighborhoods, promote healthier living, and create localized and sustainable food economies. Students consider these programs in relation to national farm policy and develop urban agriculture projects with community partners. Case studies illustrate how improving food access, beautifying vacant land, and reducing farm-to-table distances, are creatively and successfully combined. Students will receive hands-on gardening and farming experience at a community garden.

ES 421 (SOC 421) Information Ecology 3 Credits

Information theory, critical social theory, and ecological principles are combined to model how information organizes human ecosystems. These concepts are applied to environmental policy analysis using case studies.

ES 431 (POLS 431) U.S. Environmental Law I: Pollution and Risk Abatement 3 Credits

The study of bureaucracy and problems of public and nonprofit organization and management; executive leadership; personnel management systems and regulatory administration.

ES 433 International Environmental Law & Policy 3 Credits

This course examines the basic international legal setting for the protection and management of the global environment. It examines how international law concerning nature is made and applied, the role of international environmental regimes or institutions, enforcement strategies, and compliance mechanisms. Emphasis will be placed on a review of various regulatory regimes for the protection of the global commons, including the history and legal sources of the Global Climate Change Convention.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 435 Environmental Valuation for Policy Design & Legal Analysis 3 Credits

Reviewing the history and legal context that gave rise to the current use of the “contingent valuation method” for pricing environmental resources, this course assesses empirical and normative strengths of this method, as well as the weaknesses that challenge its effectiveness and political legitimacy. Students will evaluate the recent turn to “deliberative” methods of resource valuation and consider empirical and normative problems that deliberative methods address.

ES 442 International Law and Policy Design 3 Credits

Beginning in the 13th Century, this course traces the various philosophical, historical, and policy design arguments that have been used to explain, justify, and influence the evolution of the rule of law between states (ius gentium).

ES 443 Comparative Environmental Law & Policy 3 Credits

This course studies the different ways in which domestic legal systems handle the regulation of humanity’s relationship to the natural world. The first part of the course concentrates on comparative law that examines the evolution of distinct types of legal systems from their origins in the ancient world. The second part of the course specifically and comparatively examines environmental law as it has developed in Canada, China, the European Union and the United States. Ranges of alternatives for environmental law and policy as practiced in various parts of the world will be explored.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 455 (POLS 455) Environmental Justice & The Law 3 Credits

This course is an in-depth exploration of the various ways in which environmental law and policy can have discriminatory effects. It examines the rise and evolution of the environmental justice movement, and the impact of environmental justice claims on administrative rulemaking at both the state and federal level. Reviewing the history of case law concerning environmental justice suits filed under the 1964 Civil Rights Act, it also examines the future of environmental justice in environmental law and policy.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

ES 475 (POLS 475) Seminar: Green Polity 3 Credits

Development of guidelines and applications for public policy and political action directed toward environmental sustainability and political feasibility. Focus on problem-solving and policy design, connecting sustainable environmental goals with workable and responsive institutional designs.

ES 480 Internship in Environmental Policy 3 Credits

Students will gain practical experience working with governmental or non-governmental organizations or public officials formulating and/or implementing environmental policies at local, regional, national or international levels. Requires submission of a formal proposal drafted in collaboration with a faculty advisor and the professional mentor who will oversee the student’s internship. Upon completion of the internship, students will report project outcomes in oral presentation, written, or digital media format.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.

ES 483 Independent Study 1-3 Credits

Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.

ES 490 Thesis 1-6 Credits

Thesis.