# Physics

Physics students study the basic laws of mechanics, heat and thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism, optics, relativity, quantum mechanics, and elementary particles. Students also study applications of the basic theories to the description of bulk matter, including the mechanical, electric, magnetic, and thermal properties of solids, liquids, gases, and plasmas, and to the description of the structure of atoms and nuclei. In addition, students develop the laboratory skills and techniques of the experimental physicist, skills that can be applied in the experimental search for new knowledge or in applications of the known theories.

A majority of physics graduates go to graduate school in physics, often earning the Ph.D. degree. These graduates take university or college faculty positions, or work on research in a variety of university, government, or industrial laboratories. Some students choose employment immediately after the bachelor’s degree. They use their many approved and free electives to supplement their science background with applied courses, such as engineering, to develop the skills needed for a position in a particular area.

Because of the fundamental role of physics in all natural sciences, students also use the physics major as an excellent preparation for graduate study in many other scientific areas, such as: optical engineering, applied mathematics, computer science, biophysics, molecular biology, astrophysics, geology and geophysics, materials science and engineering, meteorology, or physical oceanography. Attractive engineering areas with a high science content include optical communications, aeronautical engineering, nuclear engineering, including both fission and fusion devices; electrical engineering, including instrumentation, electronics and solid-state devices, electrical discharges and other plasma-related areas; and mechanical engineering and mechanics, including fluids and continuum mechanics. The broad scientific background developed in the physics curriculum is also an excellent background for professional schools, such as law (particularly patent law), medicine, and optometry.

Lehigh offers three undergraduate degrees in physics and two undergraduate degrees in astronomy or astrophysics. The three physics degrees are the bachelor of arts with a major in physics and the bachelor of science in physics in the College of Arts and Sciences, and the bachelor of engineering physics in the College of Engineering and Applied Science. The B.A. with a major in astronomy and the B.S. in astrophysics are in the College of Arts and Sciences and are described in the **Astronomy and Astrophysics** section of this catalog.

In addition, there are several five-year, dual-degree programs involving physics: The Arts-Engineering program (see the **Arts-Engineering** section of this catalog), the combination of the bachelor of science program in the College of Arts and Sciences with Electrical Engineering (described below), and the combination of **electrical engineering and engineering physics** (see the Electrical Engineering and Engineering Physics section of this catalog).

The bachelor of science curriculum in the College of Arts and Sciences requires somewhat more physics and mathematics than the bachelor of arts major, while the latter provides more free electives and three fewer hours for graduation. By making good use of the electives in these programs, either can prepare a student for graduate work in physics or the physical aspects of other sciences or engineering disciplines, or for technical careers requiring a basic knowledge of physics. The bachelor of arts curriculum is particularly useful for those planning careers in areas where some knowledge of physics is needed or useful, but is not the main subject, such as science writing, secondary school teaching, patent law, or medicine. The bachelor of science in engineering physics curriculum in the College of Engineering and Applied Science requires an engineering concentration in either solid state electronics or optical sciences, in addition to regular physics and mathematics courses. This four-year program prepares students to do engineering work in an overlap area between physics and engineering, which may be engineering in a forefront area in which it is desirable to have more physics knowledge than the typical engineer has, or may be experimental physics which either relies heavily on forefront engineering or in which the nature of the problem dictates that scientists and engineers will accomplish more working together rather than separately.

Requirements and recommended course sequences are described below for programs in the College of Arts and Sciences and in the P. C. Rossin College of Engineering and Applied Science. Note that no more than 6 credits of military science may be applied toward any degree program.

## College of Arts and Sciences

### Bachelor of Arts Program Requirements

PHY 010 | General Physics I | 4 |

or PHY 011 | Introductory Physics I | |

PHY 013 | General Physics II | 3-4 |

or PHY 021 | Introductory Physics II | |

PHY 012 | Introductory Physics Laboratory I | 1 |

PHY 022 | Introductory Physics Laboratory II | 1 |

PHY 031 | Introduction to Quantum Mechanics | 3 |

MATH 021 | Calculus I | 4 |

MATH 022 | Calculus II | 4 |

MATH 023 | Calculus III | 4 |

MATH 205 | Linear Methods | 3 |

CHM 030 | Introduction to Chemical Principles | 4 |

Select at least one of the following: | 2-3 | |

Electronics | ||

Advanced Physics Laboratory | ||

Select at least 6 of the following: | 18 | |

Modern Astrophysics I | ||

Electricity and Magnetism I | ||

Electricity and Magnetism II | ||

Classical Mechanics I | ||

High-Energy Astrophysics | ||

Thermal Physics | ||

Relativity and Cosmology | ||

Plasma Physics | ||

Modern Optics | ||

Nonlinear Optics | ||

Atomic and Molecular Structure | ||

Physics of Solids | ||

Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics | ||

Physics Of Fluids | ||

Quantum Mechanics I | ||

Introduction to Computational Physics | ||

Total Credits | 51-53 |

A total of 120 credits are required for the BA in Physics

### Bachelor of Science Program Requirements

PHY 011 | Introductory Physics I | 4 |

or PHY 010 | General Physics I | |

PHY 021 | Introductory Physics II | 3-4 |

or PHY 013 | General Physics II | |

PHY 012 | Introductory Physics Laboratory I | 1 |

PHY 022 | Introductory Physics Laboratory II | 1 |

PHY 031 | Introduction to Quantum Mechanics | 3 |

MATH 021 | Calculus I | 4 |

MATH 022 | Calculus II | 4 |

MATH 023 | Calculus III | 4 |

MATH 205 | Linear Methods | 3 |

MATH 322 | Methods of Applied Analysis I | 3 |

CHM 030 | Introduction to Chemical Principles | 4 |

CSE 001 | Breadth of Computing ^{1} | 2 |

PHY 190 | Electronics | 3 |

PHY 262 | Advanced Physics Laboratory | 2 |

PHY 212 | Electricity and Magnetism I | 3 |

PHY 213 | Electricity and Magnetism II | 3 |

PHY 215 | Classical Mechanics I | 4 |

PHY 362 | Atomic and Molecular Structure | 3 |

PHY 364 | Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics | 3 |

PHY 340 | Thermal Physics | 3 |

At least 17 credits of approved electives ^{2} | 17 | |

Total Credits | 77-78 |

^{1} | Or an equivalent course in scientific computing. |

^{2} | At least 17 credits of approved electives in physics, physical sciences or technical areas must be selected in consultation with the advisor. Included in this group must be three of the following courses: PHY 363, PHY 369, (PHY 352 or PHY 355), and (PHY 348 or PHY 365) and PHY 380. Students planning graduate work in physics are advised to include PHY 273 and PHY 369 among their electives. |

A total of 123 credits are required for the BS in Physics

The recommended sequence of courses for the two physics degree programs are indicated below. General electives are not indicated, but they should be selected in consultation with the advisor so that educational goals and total credit hour requirements are satisfied.

## Physics Degree Programs

### College of Arts & Sciences

### Bachelor of Arts

First Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

ENGL 001 | 3 | ENGL 002 | 3 |

PHY 010 or 011 | 4 | CHM 030 | 4 |

PHY 012 | 1 | MATH 022 | 4 |

MATH 021 | 4 | Dist. Req. | 4 |

Col. Sem. | 3-4 | ||

15-16 | 15 | ||

Second Year | |||

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

PHY 013 or 021 | 3-4 | PHY 031 | 3 |

PHY 022 | 1 | PHY 190 (or elective) | 3 |

MATH 023 | 4 | MATH 205 | 3 |

Dist. Req. | 8 | Dist. Req. | 4 |

16-17 | 13 | ||

Third Year | |||

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

Adv. PHY. | 6 | PHY 262 (or elective) | 2-3 |

Adv. PHY. | 6 | ||

Jr. Writing | 3 | ||

6 | 11-12 | ||

Fourth Year | |||

Fall | Credits | ||

Adv. PHY. | 6 | ||

6 | |||

Total Credits: 82-85 |

### Bachelor of Science

First Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

ENGL 001 | 3 | ENGL 002 | 3 |

PHY 011 or 010 | 4 | CHM 030 | 4 |

PHY 012 | 1 | MATH 022 | 4 |

MATH 021 | 4 | CSE 001^{1} | 2 |

Col. Sem | 3-4 | ||

15-16 | 13 | ||

Second Year | |||

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

PHY 021 & PHY 022 | 5 | PHY 031 | 3 |

MATH 023 | 4 | PHY 190 | 3 |

Dist. Req. | 8 | MATH 205 | 3 |

Dist. Req. | 4 | ||

Appr. Elec. | 4 | ||

17 | 17 | ||

Third Year | |||

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

PHY 212 | 3 | PHY 213 | 3 |

PHY 362 | 3 | PHY 262 | 2 |

MATH 322 | 3 | PHY 364 | 3 |

Jr. Writing | 3 | PHY 215 | 4 |

12 | 12 | ||

Fourth Year | |||

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

PHY 340 | 3 | Appr. Elec | 6 |

Appr. Elec | 8 | Dist.Req. | 4 |

11 | 10 | ||

Total Credits: 107-108 |

^{1} | Or an equivalent course in scientific computing. |

## P.C. Rossin College of Engineering & Applied Sciences

Both concentrations require 131 credit hours. The tables below indicate both course requirements and recommended enrollment sequences.

### Bachelor of Engineering Physics

**with a concentration in Solid State Electronics**

First Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

ENGL 001 | 3 | ENGL 002 | 3 |

PHY 011 & PHY 012 | 5 | CHM 030 | 4 |

MATH 021 | 4 | MATH 022 | 4 |

ENGR 005 | 2 | ENGR 010 | 2 |

Elective | 3 | ||

14 | 16 | ||

Second Year | |||

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

PHY 021 & PHY 022 | 5 | PHY 031 | 3 |

MATH 023 | 4 | PHY 190 | 3 |

ECO 001 | 4 | MATH 205 | 3 |

ECE 081 | 4 | MATH 208 | 3 |

ECE 123 | 3 | ||

17 | 15 | ||

Third Year | |||

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

PHY 212 | 3 | PHY 213 | 3 |

ECE 033 | 4 | PHY 262 | 2 |

ECE 108 | 4 | PHY 215 | 4 |

MATH 322 | 3 | ECE 126 | 3 |

HSS | 4 | HSS | 3 |

Elective | 3 | ||

18 | 18 | ||

Fourth Year | |||

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

PHY 340 or ME 104 | 3 | HSS | 6 |

PHY 363 | 3 | SSE -Elec^{1} | 8 |

PHY 362 | 3 | Electives | 4 |

SSE –Elec | 3 | ||

Elective | 4 | ||

16 | 18 | ||

Total Credits: 132 |

^{1} | The 11 credit hours of SSE (Solid State Engineering) electives must include ECE 257 or ECE 258 or PHY 273. Other advanced physics or engineering courses may be included among the SSE electives with the approval of the student’s advisor. |

**with a concentration in Optical Sciences**

First Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

ENGL 001 | 3 | ENGL 002 | 3 |

PHY 011 & PHY 012 | 5 | CHM 030 | 4 |

MATH 021 | 4 | MATH 022 | 4 |

ENGR 005 | 2 | ENGR 010 | 2 |

Elective | 3 | ||

14 | 16 | ||

Second Year | |||

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

PHY 021 & PHY 022 | 5 | PHY 031 | 3 |

MATH 023 | 4 | PHY 190 | 3 |

ECO 001 | 4 | MATH 205 | 3 |

ECE 081 | 4 | MATH 208 | 3 |

HSS | 4 | ||

17 | 16 | ||

Third Year | |||

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

PHY 212 | 3 | PHY 213 | 3 |

PHY 362 | 3 | PHY 262 | 2 |

ECE 108 | 4 | PHY 215 | 4 |

MATH 322 | 3 | OE –Elec | 3 |

OE –Elec^{1} | 3 | HSS | 3 |

Elective | 3 | ||

16 | 18 | ||

Fourth Year | |||

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

PHY 340 or ME 104 | 3 | PHY 355 | 3 |

PHY 352 | 3 | Electives | 3 |

OE –Elec | 6 | OE –Elec | 6 |

Electives | 5 | HSS | 6 |

17 | 18 | ||

Total Credits: 132 |

^{1} | The 18 credit hours of OE (Optical Engineering) electives must include ECE 257 or ECE 258 or PHY 273. Must include at least two of ECE 347, ECE 348, ECE 371, ECE 372. |

## Combined B.S.(Physics)/B.S.(Electrical Engineering)

The combined arts/engineering programs resulting in bachelors degrees in both physics and electrical engineering may be arranged so that either of the two degrees is completed within the first four years. The suggested curricula are:

### Physics-Elec. Engr (Physics first)

First Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

ENGL 001 | 3 | ENGL 002 | 3 |

PHY 011 & PHY 012 | 5 | CHM 030 | 4 |

MATH 021 | 4 | MATH 022 | 4 |

ENGR 005 | 2 | ENGR 010 | 2 |

14 | 13 | ||

Second Year | |||

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

PHY 021 & PHY 022 | 5 | PHY 031 | 3 |

MATH 023 | 4 | ECO 001 | 4 |

ECE 033 | 4 | MATH 205 | 3 |

ECE 081 | 4 | MATH 208 | 3 |

ECE 182 | 1 | ||

HSS | 4 | ||

17 | 18 | ||

Third Year | |||

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

PHY 212 | 3 | PHY 213 | 3 |

PHY 362 | 3 | PHY 262 | 2 |

ECE 108 | 4 | PHY 364 | 3 |

MATH 322 | 3 | PHY 215 | 4 |

Jr. Writing | 3 | ECE 121 | 2 |

ECE 123 | 3 | ||

16 | 17 | ||

Fourth Year | |||

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

PHY 340 | 3 | ECE 126 | 3 |

PHY Appr. Elective | 6 | ECE 138 | 2 |

HSS | 6 | ECE 125 | 3 |

Elective | 3 | PHY Appr. Elective | 5 |

Dist. Req. | 4 | ||

18 | 17 | ||

Fifth Year | |||

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

ECE 257 | 3 | ECE 136 | 3 |

MATH 231 | 3 | ECE Appr Elective | 9 |

ECE Appr Elective | 3 | Elective | 3 |

Elective | 5 | ||

HSS | 3 | ||

17 | 15 | ||

Total Credits: 162 |

### Elec. Engr-Physics (Electrical Engineering First)

First Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

ENGL 001 | 3 | ENGL 002 | 3 |

PHY 011 & PHY 012 | 5 | CHM 030 | 4 |

MATH 021 | 4 | MATH 022 | 4 |

ENGR 005 | 2 | ENGR 010 | 2 |

14 | 13 | ||

Second Year | |||

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

PHY 021 & PHY 022 | 5 | PHY 031 | 3 |

MATH 023 | 4 | ECE 121 | 2 |

ECE 033 | 4 | MATH 205 | 3 |

ECE 081 | 4 | ECE 182 | 1 |

ECE 123 | 3 | ||

HSS | 6 | ||

17 | 18 | ||

Third Year | |||

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

PHY 212 | 3 | PHY 213 | 3 |

ECE 108 | 4 | ECE 126 | 3 |

MATH 208 | 3 | ECE 138 | 2 |

MATH 231 | 3 | ECE 136 | 3 |

Jr. Writing | 3 | ECE 125 | 3 |

ECO 001 | 4 | ||

16 | 18 | ||

Fourth Year | |||

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

PHY 362 | 3 | PHY 364 | 3 |

ECE 257 | 3 | PHY 215 | 4 |

ECE Appr. Elective | 3 | ECE 258 | 2 |

Elective | 4 | ECE Appr. Elective | 6 |

HSS | 4 | HSS | 2 |

17 | 17 | ||

Fifth Year | |||

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

PHY 340 | 3 | PHY 262 | 2 |

MATH 322 | 3 | PHY Appr Elective | 5 |

PHY Appr Elective | 6 | Electives | 3 |

Electives | 3 | HSS | 3 |

Dist. Req | 3 | ||

15 | 16 | ||

Total Credits: 161 |

### Physics approved electives

Select three of the following: | 9 | |

Physics of Solids | ||

Quantum Mechanics I | ||

Modern Optics | ||

or PHY 355 | Nonlinear Optics | |

Plasma Physics | ||

or PHY 365 | Physics Of Fluids | |

Introduction to Computational Physics | ||

Total Credits | 9 |

Students must satisfy both the HSS requirements of the College of Engineering and Applied Science and the distribution requirements, including the junior writing intensive requirement, of the College of Arts and Sciences. Courses appropriate for both may be counted in both categories.

Approved electives are subject to the approval of the student’s advisor. Students planning graduate work in physics are advised to include PHY 273 and PHY 369 among their electives.

## Astronomy/Astrophysics Degree Programs

(See the Astronomy section in this catalog.)

## Research opportunities

A majority of physics, astronomy, and engineering physics majors take advantage of opportunities to participate in research under the direction of a faculty member. Research areas available to undergraduates are the same as those available to graduate students; they are described below under the heading For Graduate Students. Undergraduate student research is arranged informally as early as the sophomore (or, occasionally, freshman) year at the initiation of the student or formally as a senior research project. In addition, a number of students receive financial support to do research during the summer between their junior and senior years, either as Physics Department Summer Research Participants or as Sherman Fairchild Scholars.

### The use of electives

The electives available in each of the physics and astronomy curricula provide the student with an opportunity to develop special interests and to prepare for graduate work in various allied areas. In particular, the many available upper-level physics, mathematics, and engineering courses can be used by students in consultation with their faculty advisors to structure programs with special emphasis in a variety of areas such as optical communications, solid-state electronics, or biophysics.

## Departmental Honors

Students may earn departmental honors by satisfying the following requirements:

- Grade point average of at least 3.50 in physics courses.
- Complete 6 credits of PHY 273 (research), or summer REU project, submit a written report, and give an oral presentation open to faculty and students.
- Complete three courses from the list:
Select one of the following: 3 High-Energy Astrophysics Relativity and Cosmology Topics in Astrophysics PHY 348 Plasma Physics 3 PHY 363 Physics of Solids 3 PHY 352 Modern Optics 3 or PHY 355 Nonlinear Optics PHY 369 Quantum Mechanics I 3 PHY 380 Introduction to Computational Physics 3 Any 400 level Physics course

For students majoring in astronomy or astrophysics, see the **Astronomy and Astrophysics** section of this catalog.

## Five-Year combined bachelor/master’s programs

Five-Year programs that lead to successive bachelor and master’s degrees are available. These programs satisfy all of the requirements of one of the five bachelor’s degrees in physics (B.A., B.S., B.S.E.P.) and astronomy/astrophysics (B.A., B.S.), plus the requirements of the M.S. in physics in the final year. Depending upon the undergraduate degree received, one summer in residence may be required. Interested students should contact the associate chair of physics no later than the spring semester of their junior year for further detail.

## The minor program

The minor in physics consists of 15 credits of physics courses, excluding PHY 005 and PHY 007. No more than one physics course required in a student’s major program may be included in the minor program. The minor program must be designed in consultation with the physics department chair.

## For Graduate Students

The department of physics has concentrated its research activities within several fields of physics, with the result that a number of projects are available in each area. Current departmental research activities include the following:

**Condensed matter physics**. Areas of interest include the optical and electronic properties of defects in semiconductors and insulators, quantum phenomena in semiconductor devices, collective dynamics of disordered solids, structural phase transitions in ferroelectrics and superconducting crystals, theory of quantum charge transport in nanotubes and single molecule systems, physics of nano devices.

**Atomic and molecular physics. **Research topics include atomic and molecular spectroscopy and collision processes. Recent work has addressed velocity-changing collisions, diffusion, energy-pooling collisions, charge exchange, fine structure mixing, light-induced drift and radiation trapping.

**Nonlinear optics and photonics. **Research topics include nonlinear light-matter interaction that enable the control of light with light, four-wave mixing, phase conjugation, resonant Brillouin scattering, ferroelectric domain patterning for quasi phase matching, waveguides, photonic crystals, holey and other specialty fibers, and the application of photonics to biological systems.

**Plasma physics. **Computational studies of magnetically confined toroidal plasmas address anomalous thermal and particle transport, large scale instabilities, and radiofrequency heating. Laboratory studies address collisional and collisionless phenomena of supercritical laser-produced plasmas.

**Statistical physics. **Investigation is underway of nonequilibrium fluctuations in gases, chaotic transitions and 1/f dynamics, light-scattering spectroscopy, colloidal suspensions, the nonlinear dynamics of granular particles, and pattern formation in nonequilibrium dissipative systems, including the kinetics of phase transitions and spatiotemporal chaos.

**Soft condensed matter and biological physics. **Current research topics include both the experimental and theoretical studies of complex fluids including biological polymers, colloids, and biological cells and tissues. Laser tweezers, Raman scattering, photoluminescence and advanced 3-D optical imaging techniques are integrated for investigating the structures and dynamical properties of these systems. Theoretical studies focus on the kinetics of phase transitions, including the crystallization of globular and membrane proteins and also the modeling of interactions of proteins and nanotubes.

**Complex fluids. **Polymers in aqueous solutions, colloidal suspensions, and surfactant solutions are investigated using techniques such as “laser tweezers,” video-enhanced microscopy, and laser light scattering. Areas of interest include the structures of polymers at liquid-solid interfaces and microrheology of confined macromolecules. Recent work addresses systems of biological significance.

**Computational physics. **Several of the above areas involve the use of state-of-the-art computers to address large-scale computational problems. Areas of interest include atom-atom collisions, simulations of tokamak plasmas, the statistical behavior of ensembles of many particles, the calculation of electronic wave functions for molecules and solids, and the multi-scale modeling of nano-bio systems.

Candidates for advanced degrees normally will have completed, before beginning their graduate studies, the requirements for a bachelor’s degree with a major in physics, including advanced mathematics beyond differential and integral calculus. Students lacking the equivalent of this preparation will make up deficiencies in addition to taking the specified work for the degree sought.

At least eight semester hours of general college physics using calculus are required for admission to all 200- and 300-level courses. Additional prerequisites for individual courses are noted in the course descriptions. Admission to 400-level courses generally is predicated on satisfactory completion of corresponding courses in the 200- and 300-level groups or their equivalent.

## Facilities for Research

Research facilities are housed in the Sherman Fairchild Center for the Physical Sciences, containing Lewis Laboratory, the Sherman Fairchild Laboratory for Solid State Studies, and a large connecting research wing. Well-equipped laboratory facilities are available for experimental investigations in research areas at the frontiers of physics. Instruments used for experimental studies include a wide variety of laser systems ranging from femtosecond and picosecond pulsed lasers to stabilized single-mode cw Ti-sapphire and dye lasers. There is also a Fourier-transform spectrometer, cryogenic equipment that achieves temperatures as low as 0.05K and magnetic fields up to 9 Tesla, a facility for luminescence microscopy, and a laser-tweezers system for studies of complex fluids. A 3MeV van de Graaff accelerator is used to study radiation-produced defects in solids. The Fairchild Laboratory also contains a processing laboratory where advanced Si devices can be fabricated and studied. All laboratories are well furnished with electronic instrumentation for data acquisition and analysis.

Several professors are members of the interdisciplinary Center for Optical Technologies that offers a wide range of state-of-the-art facilities including a fiber drawing tower, waveguide and fiber characterization labs, and a new epitaxy facility for the growth of III-V semiconductor structures and devices. Extensive up-to-date computer facilities are available on campus and in the department. All computing resources can be accessed directly from graduate student and faculty offices through a high speed backbone. Researchers have access to the national Research Internet (Internet 2) via a 155 Mbps gateway.

### Courses

**PHY 005 Concepts In Physics 4 Credits**

Fundamental discoveries and concepts of physics and their relevance to current issues and modern technology. For students not intending to major in science or engineering. Lectures, demonstrations, group activities, and laboratories using modern instrumentation and computers. This is a non-calculus course; no previous background in physics is assumed. Three class meetings and one laboratory period per week.

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 007 Introduction to Astronomy 3 Credits**

Introduction to planetary, stellar, galactic, and extragalactic astronomy. An examination of the surface characteristics, atmospheres, and motions of planets and other bodies in our solar system. Properties of the sun, stars, and galaxies, including the birth and death of stars, stellar explosions, and the formation of stellar remnants such as white dwarfs, neutron stars, pulsars, and black holes. Quasars, cosmology, and the evolution of the universe. May not be taken by students who have previously completed ASTR/PHY 105, 301, or 302.

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 008 Introduction to Astronomy Laboratory 1 Credit**

Laboratory to accompany PHY 7 (ASTR 7). Must be enrolled concurrently in PHY 007 (ASTR 007).

**Prerequisites:** PHY 007 or ASTR 007

**Can be taken Concurrently:** PHY 007, ASTR 007

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 009 Introductory Physics I Completion 1-2 Credit**

For students who have Advanced Placement or transfer credit for 2 or 3 credits of PHY 11. The student will be scheduled for the appropriate part of PHY 11 to complete the missing material. The subject matter and credit hours will be determined by the Physics Department for each student. Students with AP Physics C credit for mechanics will take the thermodynamics and kinetic theory part of PHY 11 for one credit. Consent of department required.

**Prerequisites:** MATH 021 or MATH 031 or MATH 051 or MATH 076 or MATH 075

**Can be taken Concurrently:** MATH 021, MATH 031, MATH 051, MATH 076, MATH 075

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 010 General Physics I 4 Credits**

Statics, dynamics, conservation laws, thermodynamics, kinetic theory of gases, fluids. Primarily for architecture, biological science, earth and environmental science students.

**Prerequisites:** MATH 021 or MATH 031 or MATH 051 or MATH 076 or MATH 075

**Can be taken Concurrently:** MATH 021, MATH 031, MATH 051, MATH 076, MATH 075

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 011 Introductory Physics I 4 Credits**

Kinematics, frames of reference, laws of motion in Newtonian theory and in special relativity, conservation laws, as applied to the mechanics of mass points; temperature, heat and the laws of thermodynamics; kinetic theory of gases. Two lectures and two recitations per week.

**Prerequisites:** MATH 021 or MATH 031 or MATH 051 or MATH 076 or MATH 075

**Can be taken Concurrently:** MATH 021, MATH 031, MATH 051, MATH 076, MATH 075

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 012 Introductory Physics Laboratory I 1 Credit**

A laboratory course taken concurrently with PHY 10 or 11. Experiments in mechanics, heat, and DC electrical circuits. One three-hour laboratory period per week.

**Prerequisites:** PHY 010 or PHY 011 or PHY 090

**Can be taken Concurrently:** PHY 010, PHY 011, PHY 090

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 013 General Physics II 3 Credits**

A continuation of PHY 10, primarily for biological science and earth and environmental science students. Electrostatics, electromagnetism, light, sound, atomic physics, nuclear physics, and radioactivity.

**Prerequisites:** (PHY 010 or PHY 011 or PHY 090) and (MATH 021 or MATH 031 or MATH 051)

**Can be taken Concurrently:** MATH 021, MATH 031, MATH 051

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 019 Introductory Physics II Completion 1-2 Credit**

For students who have Advanced Placement or transfer credit for 2 or 3 credits of PHY 21. The student will be scheduled for the appropriate part of PHY 21 to complete the missing material. The subject matter and credit hours will be determined by the Physics Department for each student. Students with AP Physics C credit for electricity and magnetism will take the optics and modern physics part of PHY 21 for one credit. Consent of instructor required.

**Prerequisites:** (PHY 010 or PHY 011) and (MATH 023 or MATH 032 or MATH 052)

**Can be taken Concurrently:** MATH 023, MATH 032, MATH 052

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 021 Introductory Physics II 4 Credits**

A continuation of PHY 11. Electrostatics and magnetostatics; DC circuits; Maxwell’s equations; waves; physical and geometrical optics; introduction to modern physics. Two lectures and two recitations per week.

**Prerequisites:** (PHY 010 or PHY 011 or PHY 090) and (MATH 023 or MATH 032 or MATH 052)

**Can be taken Concurrently:** MATH 023, MATH 032, MATH 052

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 022 Introductory Physics Laboratory II 1 Credit**

A laboratory course to be taken concurrently with PHY 13 or 21. One three-hour laboratory period per week.

**Prerequisites:** (PHY 012) and (PHY 021 or PHY 013)

**Can be taken Concurrently:** PHY 021, PHY 013

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 031 Introduction to Quantum Mechanics 3 Credits**

Experimental basis and historical development of quantum mechanics; the Schroedinger equation; one-dimensional problems; angular momentum and the hydrogen atom; many-electron systems; spectra; selected applications. Three lectures per week.

**Prerequisites:** (PHY 013 or PHY 021) and MATH 205

**Can be taken Concurrently:** MATH 205

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 091 Measurement and Transducers 1 Credit**

Computer-assisted laboratory course, dealing with physical phenomena in mechanics, electricity and magnetism, optics, spectroscopy and thermodynamics. Measurement strategies are developed and transducers devised. Computer simulation, analysis software, digital data acquisition.

**Prerequisites:** (PHY 021 and PHY 022)

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 105 Planetary Astronomy 4 Credits**

Structure and dynamics of planetary interiors, surfaces, and atmospheres. Models for the formation of the solar system and planetary evolution. Internal structure, surface topology, and composition of planets and other bodies in our solar system. Comparative study of planetary atmospheres. Organic materials in the solar system. Properties of the interplanetary medium, including dust and meteoroids. Orbital dynamics. Extrasolar planetary systems.

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 110 Methods of Observational Astronomy 1 Credit**

Techniques of astronomical observation, data reduction, and analysis. Photometry, spectroscopy, CCD imaging, and interferometry. Computational analysis. Examination of ground-based and spacecraft instrumentation, and data transmission, reduction, and analysis.

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 190 Electronics 3 Credits**

DC and AC circuits, diodes, transistors, operational amplifiers, oscillators, and digital circuitry. Two laboratories and one recitation per week.

**Prerequisites:** (PHY 013 or PHY 021) and PHY 022

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 212 Electricity and Magnetism I 3 Credits**

Electrostatics, magnetostatics, and electromagnetic induction.

**Prerequisites:** (PHY 021 or PHY 013) and MATH 205

**Can be taken Concurrently:** MATH 205

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 213 Electricity and Magnetism II 3 Credits**

Maxwell’s equations, Poynting’s theorem, potentials, the wave equation, waves in vacuum and in materials, transmission and reflection at boundaries, guided waves, dispersion, electromagnetic field of moving charges, radiation, Lorentz invariance and other symmetries of Maxwell’s equations.

**Prerequisites:** PHY 212

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 215 Classical Mechanics I 4 Credits**

Kinematics and dynamics of point masses with various force laws; conservation laws; systems of particles; rotating coordinate systems; rigid body motions; topics from Lagrange’s and Hamilton’s formulations of mechanics; continuum mechanics.

**Prerequisites:** (PHY 021 or PHY 013) and MATH 205

**Can be taken Concurrently:** MATH 205

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 262 Advanced Physics Laboratory 2 Credits**

Laboratory practice, including machine shop, vacuum systems, and computer interfacing. Experiment selected from geometrical optics, interference and diffraction, spectroscopy, lasers, fiber optics, and quantum phenomena.

**Prerequisites:** (PHY 013 or PHY 021) and PHY 022

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 272 Special Topics In Physics 1-4 Credit**

Selected topics not sufficiently covered in other courses.

**Repeat Status:** Course may be repeated.

**PHY 273 Research 2-3 Credits**

Participation in current research projects being carried out within the department. Intended for seniors majoring in the field.

**Repeat Status:** Course may be repeated.

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 281 Basic Physics I 3 Credits**

A course designed especially for secondary-school teachers in the master teacher program. Presupposing a background of two semesters of college mathematics through differential and integral calculus and of two semesters of college physics, the principles of physics are presented with emphasis on their fundamental nature rather than on their applications. Open only to secondary-school teachers and those planning to undertake teaching of secondary-school physics.

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 282 Basic Physics II 3 Credits**

Continuation of PHY 281.

**Prerequisites:** PHY 010 or PHY 011 or PHY 090 or PHY 281

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 300 Apprentice Teaching 1-4 Credit**

**PHY 301 Modern Astrophysics I 4 Credits**

Physics of stellar atmospheres and interiors, and the formation, evolution, and death of stars. Variable stars. The evolution of binary star systems. Novae, supernovae, white dwarfs, neutron stars, pulsars, and black holes. Stellar spectra, chemical compositions, and thermodynamic processes. Thermonuclear reactions. Interstellar medium.

**Prerequisites:** (PHY 010 or PHY 011 or PHY 090) and (PHY 013 or PHY 021) and (MATH 022 or MATH 032 or MATH 052)

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 302 Modern Astrophysics II 4 Credits**

The Milky Way Galaxy, galactic morphology, and evolutionary processes. Active galaxies and quasars. Observed properties of the universe. Relativistic cosmology, and the origin, evolution and fate of the universe. Elements of General Relativity and associated phenomena.

**Prerequisites:** (PHY 010 or PHY 011 or PHY 090) and (PHY 013 or PHY 021) and (MATH 022 or MATH 032 or MATH 052)

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 321 Biomolecular & Cellular Mechanics 3 Credits**

Mechanics and physics of the components of the cell, ranging in length scale from fundamental biomolecules to the entire cell. The course covers the mechanics of proteins and other biopolymers in 1D, 2D, and 3D structures, cell membrane structure and dynamics, and the mechanics of the whole cell.

**Prerequisites:** MATH 205 and MATH 231 and PHY 022 and (PHY 013 or PHY 021)

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 331 Integrated Bioelectronics/Biophotonics Laboratory 2 Credits**

Experiments in design and analysis of bioelectronics circuits, micropatterning of biological cells, micromanipulation of biological cells using electric fields, analysis of pacemakers, instrumentation and computer interfaces, ultrasound, optic, laser tweezers and advanced imaging and optical microscopy techniques for biological applications.

**Prerequisites:** (PHY 013 or PHY 021) and PHY 022 and (PHY 190 or ECE 081)

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 332 High-Energy Astrophysics 3 Credits**

Observation and theory of X-ray and gamma-ray sources, quasars, pulsars, radio galaxies, neutron stars, black holes. Results from ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma-ray satellites. Generally offered in the spring of odd-numbered years.

**Prerequisites:** PHY 021 and (MATH 023 or MATH 033)

**Can be taken Concurrently:** MATH 023, MATH 033

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 340 Thermal Physics 3 Credits**

Basic principles of thermodynamics, kinetic theory, and statistical mechanics, with emphasis on applications to classical and quantum mechanical physical systems.

**Prerequisites:** (PHY 013 or PHY 021) and (MATH 023 or MATH 032 or MATH 052)

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 342 Relativity and Cosmology 3 Credits**

Special and general relativity. Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes. Super massive stars. Relativistic theories of the origin and evolution of the universe. Generally offered in the spring of even-numbered years.

**Prerequisites:** PHY 021 and (MATH 023 or MATH 033)

**Can be taken Concurrently:** MATH 023, MATH 033

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 348 Plasma Physics 3 Credits**

Single particle behavior in electric and magnetic fields, plasmas as fluids, waves in plasmas, transport properties, kinetic theory of plasmas, controlled thermonuclear fusion devices. Must have senior standing or consent of the department chair.

**Prerequisites:** PHY 021 and MATH 205

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 352 Modern Optics 3 Credits**

Paraxial optics, wave and vectorial theory of light, coherence and interference, diffraction, crystal optics, and lasers.

**Prerequisites:** MATH 205 and (PHY 212 or ECE 202)

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 355 Nonlinear Optics 3 Credits**

This course will introduce the fundamental principles of nonlinear optics. Topics include nonlinear interaction of optical radiation with matter, multi-photon interactions, electro-optics, self and cross phase modulation, and the nonlinear optical susceptibilities that describe all these effects in the mainframe of electromagnetic theory.

**Prerequisites:** PHY 031 and (PHY 213 or ECE 203)

**Can be taken Concurrently:** PHY 213, ECE 203

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 362 Atomic and Molecular Structure 3 Credits**

Review of quantum mechanical treatment of one-electron atoms, electron spin and fine structure, multi-electron atoms, Pauli principle, Zeeman and Stark effects, hyperfine structure, structure and spectra of simple molecules.

**Prerequisites:** PHY 031 or CHM 341

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 363 Physics of Solids 3 Credits**

Introduction to the theory of solids with particular reference to the physics of metals and semiconductors.

**Prerequisites:** (PHY 031 or MAT 316 or CHM 341) and PHY 340

**Can be taken Concurrently:** PHY 340

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 364 Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics 3 Credits**

Models, properties, and classification of nuclei and elementary particles; nuclear and elementary particle reactions and decays; radiation and particle detectors; accelerators; applications. Prerequisites as noted below.

**Prerequisites:** PHY 031 and MATH 205

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 365 Physics Of Fluids 3 Credits**

Concepts of fluid dynamics; continuum and molecular approaches; waves, shocks and nozzle flows; nature of turbulence; experimental methods of study.

**Prerequisites:** (PHY 212 or ECE 202) and (PHY 340 or ME 104)

**Can be taken Concurrently:** PHY 212, ECE 202, PHY 340, ME 104

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 369 Quantum Mechanics I 3 Credits**

Principles of quantum mechanics: Schroedinger, Heisenberg, and Dirac formulations. Applications to simple problems.

**Prerequisites:** PHY 031 and MATH 205 and PHY 215

**Can be taken Concurrently:** PHY 215

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 372 Special Topics In Physics 1-3 Credit**

Selected topics not sufficiently covered in other courses.

**Repeat Status:** Course may be repeated.

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 380 Introduction to Computational Physics 3 Credits**

Numerical solution of physics and engineering problems using computational techniques. Topics include linear and nonlinear equations, interpolation, eigenvalues, ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations, statistical analysis of data, Monte Carlo, and molecular dynamics methods.

**Prerequisites:** MATH 205

**Can be taken Concurrently:** MATH 205

**Attribute/Distribution:** NS

**PHY 389 Honors Project 1-8 Credit**

**Repeat Status:** Course may be repeated.

**PHY 411 Survey Nuclear Particles and Elementary Particle Physics 3 Credits**

Intended for non-specialists. Fundamentals and modern advanced topics in nuclear and elementary particle physics. Topics include: nuclear force, structure of nuclei, nuclear models and reactions, scattering, elementary particle classification, SU(3), quarks, gluons, quark flavor and color, leptons, gauge theories, GUT, the big bang.

**Prerequisites:** PHY 369

**PHY 420 Mechanics 3 Credits**

Includes the variational methods of classical mechanics, methods of Hamilton and Lagrange, canonical transformations, Hamilton-Jacobi Theory.

**PHY 421 Electricity & Magnetism I 3 Credits**

Electrostatics, magnetostatics, Maxwell’s equations, dynamics of charged particles, multipole fields.

**PHY 422 Electricity & Magnetism II 3 Credits**

Electrodynamics, electromagnetic radiation, physical optics, electrodynamics in anisotropic media. Special theory of relativity.

**Prerequisites:** (PHY 421)

**PHY 424 Quantum Mechanics II 3 Credits**

General principles of quantum theory; approximation methods; spectra; symmetry laws; theory of scattering.

**Prerequisites:** PHY 369

**PHY 425 Quantum Mechanics III 3 Credits**

A continuation of Phys 424. Relativistic quantum theory of the electron; theory of radiation.

**Prerequisites:** PHY 422

**PHY 428 Methods of Mathematical Physics I 3 Credits**

Analytical and numerical methods of solving the ordinary and partial differential equations that occur in physics and engineering. Includes treatments of complex variables, special functions, product solutions and integral transforms.

**PHY 429 Methods of Mathematical Physics II 3 Credits**

Continuation of Physics 428 to include the use of integral equations. Green's functions, group theory, and more on numerical methods.

**Prerequisites:** PHY 428

**PHY 431 Theory Of Solids 3 Credits**

Advanced topics in the theory of the electronic structure of solids. Many-electron theory. Theory of transport phenomena. Magnetic properties, optical properties. Superconductivity. Point imperfections.

**Prerequisites:** PHY 363 and PHY 424

**PHY 442 Statistical Mechanics 3 Credits**

General principles of statistical mechanics with application to thermodynamics and the equilibrium properties of matter.

**Prerequisites:** PHY 340 and PHY 369

**PHY 443 Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics 3 Credits**

A continuation of PHY 442. Applications of kinetic theory and statistical mechanics to nonequilibrium processes; nonequilibrium thermodynamics.

**Prerequisites:** PHY 422

**PHY 446 Atomic and Molecular Physics 3 Credits**

Advanced topics in the experimental and theoretical study of atomic and molecular structure. Topics include fine and hyperfine structure, Zeeman effect, interaction of light with matter, multi-electron atoms, molecular spectroscopy, spectral line broadening atom-atom and electron-atom collisions and modern experimental techniques.

**Prerequisites:** PHY 424

**PHY 455 Physics of Nonlinear Phenomena 3 Credits**

Basic concepts, theoretical methods of analysis and experimental development in nonlinear phenomena and chaos. Topics include nonlinear dynamics, including period-multiplying routes to chaos and strange attractors, fractal geometry and devil’s staircase. Examples of both dissipative and conservative systems will be drawn from fluid flows, plasmas, nonlinear optics, mechanics and waves in disordered media. Must have graduate standing in science or engineering, or consent of the chairman of the department.

**PHY 462 Theories of Elementary Particle Interactions 3 Credits**

Relativistic quantum theory with applications to the strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions of elementary particles.

**Prerequisites:** PHY 425

**PHY 467 Nuclear Theory 3 Credits**

Theory of low-energy nuclear phenomena within the framework of non-relativistic quantum mechanics.

**PHY 471 Continuum Mechanics 3 Credits**

An introduction to the continuum theories of the mechanics of solids and fluids. This includes a discussion of the mechanical and thermodynamical bases of the subject, as well as the use of invariance principles in formulating constitutive equations. Applications of theories to specific problems are given.

**PHY 472 Special Topics In Physics 1-3 Credit**

Selected topics not sufficiently covered in other courses.

**Repeat Status:** Course may be repeated.

**PHY 474 Seminar In Modern Physics 3 Credits**

Discussion of important advances in experimental physics. May be repeated for credit when a different topic is offered.

**Repeat Status:** Course may be repeated.

**PHY 475 Seminar In Modern Physics 3 Credits**

Discussion of important advances in theoretical physics. May be repeated for credit when a different topic is offered.

**Repeat Status:** Course may be repeated.

**PHY 482 Applied Optics 3 Credits**

Review of ray and wave optics with extension to inhomogenous media, polarized optical waves, crystal optics, beam optics in free space (Gaussian and other types of beams) and transmission through various optical elements, guided wave propagation in planar waveguides and fibers (modal analysis), incidence of chromatic and polarization mode dispersion, guided propagation of pulses, nonlinear effects in waveguides (solitons), periodic interactions in waveguides, acousto-optic and electro-optics.

**Prerequisites:** PHY 352

**PHY 490 Thesis 1-6 Credit**

**PHY 491 Research 3 Credits**

Research problems in experimental or theoretical physics.

**PHY 492 Research 3 Credits**

Continuation of PHY 491.

**Repeat Status:** Course may be repeated.

**PHY 499 Dissertation 1-15 Credit**

**Repeat Status:** Course may be repeated.

**Professors**. Ivan Biaggio, PhD (ETH Zurich); Gary G. DeLeo, PhD (University of Connecticut); Volkmar R. Dierolf, PhD (University of Utah); James D. Gunton, PhD (Stanford University); Albert Peet Hickman, PhD (Rice University); John P. Huennekens, PhD (University of Colorado Boulder); Alvin S. Kanofsky, PhD (University of Pennsylvania); Yong W. Kim, PhD (University of Michigan Ann Arbor); Arnold H. Kritz, PhD (Yale University); George Eadon McCluskey, Jr., PhD (University of Pennsylvania); H. Daniel Ou-Yang, PhD (University of California Los Angeles); Michael J. Stavola, PhD (University of Rochester); Jean Toulouse, PhD (Columbia University)

**Associate Professors**. Jerome C. Licini, PhD (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); Mary Virginia McSwain, PhD (Georgia State University); Vyacheslav Rotkin, PhD (Ioffe Institute); Dimitrios Vavylonis, PhD (Columbia University)

**Assistant Professor**. Joshua A. Pepper, PhD (Ohio State University)

**Emeriti**. Garold J Borse, PhD (University of Virginia); W. Beall Fowler, PhD (University of Rochester); Shelden H. Radin, PhD (Yale University); Russell A. Shaffer, PhD (Johns Hopkins University)