Physics
Physics students study the basic laws of mechanics, heat and thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism, optics, relativity, quantum mechanics, and elementary particles. Students also study applications of the basic theories to the description of bulk matter, including the mechanical, electric, magnetic, and thermal properties of solids, liquids, gases, and plasmas, and to the description of the structure of atoms and nuclei. In addition, students develop the laboratory skills and techniques of the experimental physicist, skills that can be applied in the experimental search for new knowledge or in applications relating to known theories.
A majority of physics graduates go to graduate school in physics, often earning the Ph.D. degree. These graduates take university or college faculty positions, or work on research in a variety of university, government, or industrial laboratories. Some students choose employment immediately after the bachelor’s degree. They use their many approved and free electives to supplement their science background with applied courses, such as engineering, to develop the skills needed for a position in a particular area.
Because of the fundamental role of physics in all natural sciences, students also use the physics major as an excellent preparation for graduate study in many other scientific areas, such as optical engineering, applied mathematics, computer science, biophysics, molecular biology, astrophysics, geology and geophysics, materials science and engineering, meteorology, or physical oceanography. Attractive engineering areas with a high science content include optical communications, aeronautical engineering, nuclear engineering, including both fission and fusion devices; electrical engineering, including instrumentation; electronics and solidstate devices, electrical discharges and other plasmarelated areas; and mechanical engineering and mechanics, including fluids and continuum mechanics. The broad scientific background developed in the physics curriculum is also an excellent background for professional schools, such as law (particularly patent law), medicine, and optometry.
Lehigh offers three undergraduate degrees in physics and two undergraduate degrees in astronomy or astrophysics. The three physics degrees are the bachelor of arts with a major in physics and the bachelor of science in physics in the College of Arts and Sciences, and the bachelor of engineering physics in the College of Engineering and Applied Science. The B.A. with a major in astronomy and the B.S. in astrophysics are in the College of Arts and Sciences and are described in the Astronomy and Astrophysics section of this catalog.
In addition, there are several fiveyear, dualdegree programs involving physics: The ArtsEngineering program (see the ArtsEngineering section of this catalog), the combination of the bachelor of science program in the College of Arts and Sciences with electrical engineering (described below), and the combination of electrical engineering and engineering physics (see the Electrical Engineering and Engineering Physics section of this catalog).
The bachelor of science curriculum in the College of Arts and Sciences requires somewhat more physics and mathematics than the bachelor of arts major, while the latter provides more free electives and fewer hours for graduation. By making good use of the electives in these programs, students can pursue graduate work in physics or physical aspects of other science or engineering disciplines, or technical careers requiring a basic knowledge of physics. The bachelor of arts curriculum is particularly useful for those planning careers in areas where some knowledge of physics is needed or useful, but is not the main subject, such as science writing, secondary school teaching, patent law, or medicine. The bachelor of science in engineering physics curriculum in the College of Engineering and Applied Science requires an engineering concentration in either solid state electronics or optical sciences, in addition to regular physics and mathematics courses. This fouryear program prepares students to do engineering work in an overlap area between physics and engineering. This may involve engineering in a forefront area in which it is desirable to have more physics knowledge than that typically provided in an engineering program. It may be a field of experimental physics which either relies heavily on forefront engineering or in which the nature of the problem dictates that scientists and engineers will accomplish more working together rather than separately.
Requirements and recommended course sequences are described below for programs in the College of Arts and Sciences and in the P. C. Rossin College of Engineering and Applied Science. Note that no more than 6 credits of military science may be applied toward any degree program.
College of Arts and Sciences
B.A. with Major in Physics Program Requirements
PHY 010  General Physics I  4 
or PHY 011  Introductory Physics I  
PHY 013  General Physics II  34 
or PHY 021  Introductory Physics II  
PHY 012  Introductory Physics Laboratory I  1 
PHY 022  Introductory Physics Laboratory II  1 
PHY 031  Introduction to Quantum Mechanics  3 
MATH 021  Calculus I  4 
MATH 022  Calculus II  4 
MATH 023  Calculus III  4 
MATH 205  Linear Methods  3 
CHM 030  Introduction to Chemical Principles  4 
Select at least one of the following:  23  
Electronics  
Advanced Physics Laboratory  
Select at least 6 of the following:  18  
Electricity and Magnetism I  
Electricity and Magnetism II  
Modern Astrophysics I  
Classical Mechanics I  
HighEnergy Astrophysics  
Thermal Physics  
Relativity and Cosmology  
Plasma Physics  
Modern Optics  
Nonlinear Optics  
Atomic and Molecular Structure  
Physics of Solids  
Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics  
Physics Of Fluids  
Quantum Mechanics I  
Introduction to Computational Physics  
Total Credits  5153 
A total of 120 credits are required for the BA in Physics
B.S. in Physics Program Requirements
Mathematics Courses  
MATH 021  Calculus I  4 
MATH 022  Calculus II  4 
MATH 023  Calculus III  4 
MATH 205  Linear Methods  3 
MATH 208  Complex Variables  34 
or MATH 320  Ordinary Differential Equations  
or MATH 322  Methods of Applied Analysis I  
Basic Science Courses  
PHY 011  Introductory Physics I  4 
or PHY 010  General Physics I  
PHY 021  Introductory Physics II  4 
or PHY 023  Introductory Physics II with Relativity  
PHY 012  Introductory Physics Laboratory I  1 
PHY 022  Introductory Physics Laboratory II  1 
PHY 031  Introduction to Quantum Mechanics  3 
CHM 030  Introduction to Chemical Principles  4 
Laboratory and Computing Courses  
CSE 002  Fundamentals of Programming ^{*}  2 
PHY 220  Advanced Physics Laboratory I  3 
PHY 221  Advanced Physics Laboratory II  2 
*Or an equivalent course in scientific computing.  
Intermediate and Advanced Courses  
PHY 212  Electricity and Magnetism I  3 
PHY 213  Electricity and Magnetism II  3 
PHY 215  Classical Mechanics I  4 
PHY 340  Thermal Physics  3 
PHY 362  Atomic and Molecular Structure  3 
PHY 364  Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics  3 
PHY 369  Quantum Mechanics I  3 
Approved Elective Courses  
Select two courses from among...  
PHY 363  Physics of Solids  3 
PHY 352  Modern Optics  3 
or PHY 355  Nonlinear Optics  
PHY 348  Plasma Physics  3 
or PHY 365  Physics Of Fluids  
PHY 380  Introduction to Computational Physics  3 
... plus three additional courses in appropriate technical areas in consultation with the adviser. Students planning graduate work in Physics are advised to include PHY 273 (Research) among their electives.  1415  
Total Credits  9092 
A total of 123 credits are required for the BS in Physics
RECOMMENDED SEQUENCE OF COURSES
The recommended sequence of courses for physics degree programs are indicated below. General electives are not indicated, but they should be selected in consultation with the advisor so that educational goals and total credit hour requirements are satisfied.
B.A. with a Major in Physics, College of Arts & Sciences
First Year  

Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
ENGL 001  3  ENGL 002  3 
PHY 010 or 011  4  CHM 030  4 
PHY 012  1  MATH 022  4 
MATH 021  4  Dist. Req.  4 
Col. Sem.  34  
1516  15  
Second Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 013 or 021  34  PHY 031  3 
PHY 022  1  MATH 205  3 
MATH 023  4  Elective  67 
Dist. Req.  8  Dist. Req.  4 
1617  1617  
Total Credits: 6265 
B.S. in Physics, College of Arts & Sciences
First Year  

Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
ENGL 001  3  ENGL 002  3 
PHY 011 or 010  4  CHM 030  4 
PHY 012  1  MATH 022  4 
MATH 021  4  Col. Sem. or Dist. Req.  34 
Col. Sem. or Dist. Req.  34  
1516  1415  
Second Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 021 or 023  4  PHY 031  3 
PHY 022  1  CSE 002^{*}  2 
MATH 023  4  MATH 205  3 
Dist. Req.  34  Dist. Req.  34 
Elective or Dist. Req.  34  Elective or Dist. Req.  34 
1517  1416  
Total Credits: 5864 
*  Or an equivalent course in scientific computing. 
P.C. Rossin College of Engineering & Applied Sciences
Both concentrations require 131 credit hours. The tables below indicate both course requirements and recommended enrollment sequences.
Bachelor of Engineering Physics
with a concentration in Solid State Electronics
First Year  

Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
ENGL 001  3  ENGL 002  3 
PHY 011 & PHY 012  5  CHM 030  4 
MATH 021  4  MATH 022  4 
ENGR 005  2  ENGR 010  2 
HSS  3  
14  16  
Second Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 021 & PHY 022  5  PHY 031  3 
MATH 023  4  PHY 190  3 
ECO 001  4  MATH 205  3 
ECE 081  4  MATH 208  3 
ECE 123  3  
17  15  
Third Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 212  3  PHY 213  3 
ECE 033  4  PHY 262  2 
ECE 108  4  PHY 215  4 
MATH 322  3  ECE 126  3 
HSS  4  HSS  3 
Elective  3  
18  18  
Fourth Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 340 or ME 104  3  HSS  3 
PHY 363  3  SSE Elec (1)  8 
PHY 362  3  Electives  6 
SSE –Elec  3  
Elective  4  
16  17  
Total Credits: 131 
(1)  The 11 credit hours of SSE (Solid State Engineering) electives must include ECE 257 or ECE 258 or PHY 273. Other advanced physics or engineering courses may be included among the SSE electives with the approval of the student’s advisor. 
with a concentration in Optical Sciences
First Year  

Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
ENGL 001  3  ENGL 002  3 
PHY 011 & PHY 012  5  CHM 030  4 
MATH 021  4  MATH 022  4 
ENGR 005  2  ENGR 010  2 
HSS  3  
14  16  
Second Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 021 & PHY 022  5  PHY 031  3 
MATH 023  4  PHY 190  3 
ECO 001  4  MATH 205  3 
ECE 081  4  MATH 208  3 
HSS  4  
17  16  
Third Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 212  3  PHY 213  3 
PHY 362  3  PHY 262  2 
ECE 108  4  PHY 215  4 
MATH 322  3  OE –Elec  3 
OE –Elec (1)  3  HSS  3 
Elective  3  
16  18  
Fourth Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 340 or ME 104  3  PHY 355  3 
PHY 352  3  Electives  4 
OE –Elec  6  OE –Elec  6 
Electives  6  HSS  3 
18  16  
Total Credits: 131 
(1)  The 18 credit hours of OE (Optical Engineering) electives must include ECE 257 or ECE 258 or PHY 273. Must include at least two of ECE 347, ECE 348, ECE 371, ECE 372. 
Combined B.S.(Physics)/B.S.(Electrical Engineering)
The combined arts/engineering programs resulting in bachelors degrees in both physics and electrical engineering may be arranged so that either of the two degrees is completed within the first four years. The suggested curricula are:
PhysicsElec. Engr (Physics first)
First Year  

Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
ENGL 001  3  ENGL 002  3 
PHY 011 & PHY 012  5  CHM 030  4 
MATH 021  4  MATH 022  4 
ENGR 005  2  ENGR 010  2 
Col. Sem.  3  
14  16  
Second Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 021 & PHY 022  5  PHY 031  3 
MATH 023  4  ECO 001  4 
ECE 033  4  MATH 205  3 
ECE 081  4  MATH 208  3 
HSS/Dist. Req.  4  
17  17  
Third Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 212  3  PHY 213  3 
PHY 362  3  PHY 221  2 
ECE 108  4  PHY 364  3 
ECE 182  1  PHY 215  4 
MATH 322  3  ECE 121  2 
Jr. Writing  3  ECE 123  3 
17  17  
Fourth Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 340  3  ECE 126  3 
PHY Appr. Elective  6  ECE 138  2 
HSS/Dist. Req.  6  ECE 125  3 
Elective  3  PHY Appr. Elective  6 
HSS/Dist. Req.  3  
18  17  
Fifth Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
ECE 257  3  ECE 258  2 
MATH 231  3  ECE Appr Elective  9 
ECE 136  3  Elective  3 
ECE Appr Elective  3  
Elective  3  
15  14  
Total Credits: 162 
Elec. EngrPhysics (Electrical Engineering First)
First Year  

Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
ENGL 001  3  ENGL 002  3 
PHY 011 & PHY 012  5  CHM 030  4 
MATH 021  4  MATH 022  4 
ENGR 005  2  ENGR 010  2 
HSS/Dist. Req.  4  
14  17  
Second Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 021 & PHY 022  5  PHY 031  3 
MATH 023  4  ECE 121  2 
ECE 033  4  MATH 205  3 
ECE 081  4  ECE 123  3 
HSS/Dist. Req.  6  
17  17  
Third Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 212  3  PHY 213  3 
ECE 108  4  ECE 126  3 
ECE 182  1  ECE 138  2 
MATH 208  3  ECE 125  3 
MATH 231  3  ECO 001  4 
Jr. Writing  3  
17  15  
Fourth Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 362  3  PHY 364  3 
ECE 136  3  PHY 215  4 
ECE 257  3  ECE 258  2 
ECE Appr. Elective  6  ECE Appr. Elective  6 
HSS/Dist. Req.  3  
15  18  
Fifth Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 340  3  PHY 221  2 
MATH 322  3  PHY Appr Elective  3 
PHY Appr Elective  6  Electives  12 
Electives  3  
15  17  
Total Credits: 162 
Physics approved electives
Select three of the following:  9  
Physics of Solids  
Quantum Mechanics I  
Modern Optics  
or PHY 355  Nonlinear Optics  
Plasma Physics  
or PHY 365  Physics Of Fluids  
Introduction to Computational Physics  
Total Credits  9 
Students must satisfy both the HSS requirements of the College of Engineering and Applied Science and the distribution requirements, including the junior writing intensive requirement, of the College of Arts and Sciences. Courses appropriate for both may be counted in both categories.
Approved electives are subject to the approval of the student’s advisor. Students planning graduate work in physics are advised to include PHY 273 and PHY 369 among their electives.
Astronomy/Astrophysics Degree Programs
(See the Astronomy section in this catalog.)
Research opportunities
A majority of physics, astronomy, and engineering physics majors take advantage of opportunities to participate in research under the direction of a faculty member. Research areas available to undergraduates are the same as those available to graduate students; they are described below under the heading For Graduate Students. Undergraduate student research is arranged informally as early as the sophomore (or, occasionally, freshman) year at the initiation of the student or formally as a senior research project. In addition, a number of students receive financial support to do research during the summer between their junior and senior years, either as Physics Department Summer Research Participants or as Sherman Fairchild Scholars.
The use of electives
The electives available in each of the physics and astronomy curricula provide the student with an opportunity to develop special interests and to prepare for graduate work in various allied areas. In particular, the many available upperlevel physics, mathematics, and engineering courses can be used by students in consultation with their faculty advisors to structure programs with special emphases in a variety of areas such as optical communications, solidstate electronics, or biophysics.
Departmental Honors
Students may earn departmental honors by satisfying the following requirements:
 Grade point average of at least 3.50 in physics courses.
 Complete 6 credits of PHY 273 (research), or summer REU project, submit a written report, and give an oral presentation open to faculty and students.
 Complete three courses from the list:

Select one of the following: 3 HighEnergy Astrophysics Relativity and Cosmology PHY 348 Plasma Physics 3 PHY 363 Physics of Solids 3 PHY 352 Modern Optics 3 or PHY 355 Nonlinear Optics PHY 369 Quantum Mechanics I 3 PHY 380 Introduction to Computational Physics 3 Any 400 level Physics course
For students majoring in astronomy or astrophysics, see the Astronomy and Astrophysics section of this catalog.
FiveYear combined bachelor/master’s programs
FiveYear programs that lead to successive bachelor and master’s degrees are available. These programs satisfy all of the requirements of one of the five bachelor’s degrees in physics (B.A., B.S., B.S.E.P.) and astronomy/astrophysics (B.A., B.S.), plus the requirements of the M.S. in physics in the final year. Depending upon the undergraduate degree received, one summer in residence may be required. Interested students should contact the associate chair of physics no later than the spring semester of their junior year for further detail.
The minor program
The minor in physics consists of 15 credits of physics courses, excluding PHY 005 and ASTR 007. No more than one physics course required in a student’s major program may be included in the minor program. The minor program must be designed in consultation with the physics department chair.
For Graduate Students
The department of physics has concentrated its research activities within several fields of physics, with the result that a number of projects are available in each area. Current departmental research activities include the following:
Condensed matter physics. Areas of interest include the optical and electronic properties of defects in semiconductors and insulators, quantum phenomena in semiconductor devices, collective dynamics of disordered solids, structural phase transitions in ferroelectrics and superconducting crystals, theory of quantum charge transport in nanotubes and single molecule systems, physics of nano devices.
Atomic and molecular physics. Research topics include atomic and molecular spectroscopy and collision processes. Recent work has addressed velocitychanging collisions, diffusion, energypooling collisions, charge exchange, fine structure mixing, lightinduced drift and radiation trapping.
Cosmology and string theory: This research area examines the fundamental structure of spacetime and the quantum nature of gravity. Research directions include a wide range of topics in quantum field theory and string theory, with applications to strongly coupled gauge theories, gravity and theoretical cosmology.
Highenergy physics: The department provides both theoretical and experimental research opportunities in the field of highenergy physics. Experimental work involves the examination of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) created in heavyion collisions by using particle jets and heavy flavor quarks as probes of the medium. These studies make use of the Solenoidal Tracker (STAR) detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), and other accelerator experiments. Theoretical studies address fundamental aspects and phenomenological applications of string theory, gravitational descriptions of quantum field theory, and gauge/string dualities.
Nonlinear optics and photonics. Research topics include nonlinear lightmatter interaction that enable the control of light with light, fourwave mixing, phase conjugation, resonant Brillouin scattering, ferroelectric domain patterning for quasi phase matching, waveguides, photonic crystals, holey and other specialty fibers, and the application of photonics to biological systems.
Plasma physics. Computational studies of magnetically confined toroidal plasmas address anomalous thermal and particle transport, large scale instabilities, and radiofrequency heating. Laboratory studies address collisional and collisionless phenomena of supercritical laserproduced plasmas.
Statistical physics. Investigation is underway of nonequilibrium fluctuations in gases, chaotic transitions and 1/f dynamics, lightscattering spectroscopy, colloidal suspensions, the nonlinear dynamics of granular particles, and pattern formation in nonequilibrium dissipative systems, including the kinetics of phase transitions and spatiotemporal chaos.
Soft condensed matter and biological physics. Current research topics include both the experimental and theoretical studies of complex fluids including biological polymers, colloids, and biological cells and tissues. Laser tweezers, Raman scattering, photoluminescence and advanced 3D optical imaging techniques are integrated for investigating the structures and dynamical properties of these systems. Theoretical studies focus on the kinetics of phase transitions, including the crystallization of globular and membrane proteins and also the modeling of interactions of proteins and nanotubes.
Complex fluids. Polymers in aqueous solutions, colloidal suspensions, and surfactant solutions are investigated using techniques such as “laser tweezers,” videoenhanced microscopy, and laser light scattering. Areas of interest include the structures of polymers at liquidsolid interfaces and microrheology of confined macromolecules. Recent work addresses systems of biological significance.
Computational physics. Several of the above areas involve the use of stateoftheart computers to address largescale computational problems. Areas of interest include atomatom collisions, simulations of tokamak plasmas, the statistical behavior of ensembles of many particles, the calculation of electronic wave functions for molecules and solids, and the multiscale modeling of nanobio systems.
Candidates for advanced degrees normally will have completed, before beginning their graduate studies, the requirements for a bachelor’s degree with a major in physics, including advanced mathematics beyond differential and integral calculus. Students lacking the equivalent of this preparation will make up deficiencies in addition to taking the specified work for the degree sought.
At least eight semester hours of general college physics using calculus are required for admission to all 200 and 300level courses. Additional prerequisites for individual courses are noted in the course descriptions. Admission to 400level courses generally is predicated on satisfactory completion of corresponding courses in the 200 and 300level groups or their equivalent.
Facilities for Research
Research facilities are housed in the Sherman Fairchild Center for the Physical Sciences, containing Lewis Laboratory, the Sherman Fairchild Laboratory for Solid State Studies, and a large connecting research wing. Wellequipped laboratory facilities are available for experimental investigations in research areas at the frontiers of physics. Instruments used for experimental studies include a wide variety of laser systems ranging from femtosecond and picosecond pulsed lasers to stabilized singlemode cw Tisapphire and dye lasers. There is also a Fouriertransform spectrometer, cryogenic equipment that achieves temperatures as low as 0.05K and magnetic fields up to 9 Tesla, a facility for luminescence microscopy, and a lasertweezers system for studies of complex fluids. The Fairchild Laboratory also contains a processing laboratory where advanced Si devices can be fabricated and studied. All laboratories are well furnished with electronic instrumentation for data acquisition and analysis.
Several professors are members of the interdisciplinary Center for Optical Technologies that offers a wide range of stateoftheart facilities including a fiber drawing tower, waveguide and fiber characterization labs, and a new epitaxy facility for the growth of IIIV semiconductor structures and devices. Extensive uptodate computer facilities are available on campus and in the department. All computing resources can be accessed directly from graduate student and faculty offices through a high speed backbone. Researchers have access to the national Research Internet (Internet 2) via a 155 Mbps gateway.
Courses
PHY 005 Concepts In Physics 4 Credits
Fundamental discoveries and concepts of physics and their relevance to current issues and modern technology. For students not intending to major in science or engineering. Lectures, demonstrations, group activities, and laboratories using modern instrumentation and computers. This is a noncalculus course; no previous background in physics is assumed. Three class meetings and one laboratory period per week.
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 009 Introductory Physics I Completion 12 Credits
For students who have Advanced Placement or transfer credit for 2 or 3 credits of PHY 11. The student will be scheduled for the appropriate part of PHY 11 to complete the missing material. The subject matter and credit hours will be determined by the Physics Department for each student. Students with AP Physics C credit for mechanics will take the thermodynamics and kinetic theory part of PHY 11 for one credit. Consent of department required.
Prerequisites: MATH 021 or MATH 031 or MATH 051 or MATH 076 or MATH 075
Can be taken Concurrently: MATH 021, MATH 031, MATH 051, MATH 076, MATH 075
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 010 General Physics I 4 Credits
Statics, dynamics, conservation laws, thermodynamics, kinetic theory of gases, fluids. Primarily for architecture, biological science, earth and environmental science students.
Prerequisites: MATH 021 or MATH 031 or MATH 051 or MATH 076 or MATH 075
Can be taken Concurrently: MATH 021, MATH 031, MATH 051, MATH 076, MATH 075
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 011 Introductory Physics I 4 Credits
Kinematics, frames of reference, laws of motion in Newtonian theory and in special relativity, conservation laws, as applied to the mechanics of mass points; temperature, heat and the laws of thermodynamics; kinetic theory of gases. Two lectures and two recitations per week.
Prerequisites: MATH 021 or MATH 031 or MATH 051 or MATH 076 or MATH 075
Can be taken Concurrently: MATH 021, MATH 031, MATH 051, MATH 076, MATH 075
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 012 Introductory Physics Laboratory I 1 Credit
A laboratory course taken concurrently with PHY 10 or 11. Experiments in mechanics, heat, and DC electrical circuits. One threehour laboratory period per week.
Prerequisites: PHY 010 or PHY 011
Can be taken Concurrently: PHY 010, PHY 011
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 013 General Physics II 3 Credits
A continuation of PHY 10, primarily for biological science and earth and environmental science students. Electrostatics, electromagnetism, light, sound, atomic physics, nuclear physics, and radioactivity.
Prerequisites: (PHY 010 or PHY 011) and (MATH 021 or MATH 031 or MATH 051)
Can be taken Concurrently: MATH 021, MATH 031, MATH 051
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 019 Introductory Physics II Completion 12 Credits
For students who have Advanced Placement or transfer credit for 2 or 3 credits of PHY 21. The student will be scheduled for the appropriate part of PHY 21 to complete the missing material. The subject matter and credit hours will be determined by the Physics Department for each student. Students with AP Physics C credit for electricity and magnetism will take the optics and modern physics part of PHY 21 for one credit. Consent of instructor required.
Prerequisites: (PHY 010 or PHY 011) and (MATH 022 or MATH 032 or MATH 052)
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 021 Introductory Physics II 4 Credits
A continuation of PHY 11. Electrostatics and magnetostatics; DC circuits; Maxwell’s equations; waves; physical and geometrical optics; introduction to modern physics. Two lectures and two recitations per week. May not be taken by students who have previously completed PHY 023.
Prerequisites: (PHY 010 or PHY 011) and (MATH 022 or MATH 032 or MATH 052)
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 022 Introductory Physics Laboratory II 1 Credit
A laboratory course to be taken concurrently with PHY 13 or 21. One threehour laboratory period per week.
Prerequisites: (PHY 012) and (PHY 021 or PHY 013 or PHY 023)
Can be taken Concurrently: PHY 021, PHY 013, PHY 023
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 023 Introductory Physics II with Relativity 4 Credits
A version of PHY 021 for students interested in majoring in physics or astrophysics, or students with a strong interest in related fields. It is wellsuited for students with PHY 011 AP credit, or with PHY 021 AP credit who wish to replace that course with a more sophisticated version. The theory of electricity and magnetism is developed from a modern point of view, emphasizing the unity of electric and magnetic fields in the context of special relativity.
Prerequisites: (PHY 010 or PHY 011) and (MATH 022 or MATH 032 or MATH 052)
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 031 Introduction to Quantum Mechanics 3 Credits
Experimental basis and historical development of quantum mechanics; the Schroedinger equation; onedimensional problems; angular momentum and the hydrogen atom; manyelectron systems; spectra; selected applications. Three lectures per week.
Prerequisites: (PHY 013 or PHY 021 or PHY 023) and MATH 205
Can be taken Concurrently: MATH 205
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 091 Measurement and Transducers 1 Credit
Computerassisted laboratory course, dealing with physical phenomena in mechanics, electricity and magnetism, optics, spectroscopy and thermodynamics. Measurement strategies are developed and transducers devised. Computer simulation, analysis software, digital data acquisition.
Prerequisites: (PHY 021 or PHY 023) and PHY 022
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 190 Electronics 3 Credits
DC and AC circuits, diodes, transistors, operational amplifiers, oscillators, and digital circuitry. Two laboratories and one recitation per week.
Prerequisites: (PHY 013 or PHY 021 or PHY 023) and PHY 022
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 212 Electricity and Magnetism I 3 Credits
Electrostatics, magnetostatics, and electromagnetic induction.
Prerequisites: (PHY 021 or PHY 013 or PHY 023) and MATH 205
Can be taken Concurrently: MATH 205
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 213 Electricity and Magnetism II 3 Credits
Maxwell’s equations, Poynting’s theorem, potentials, the wave equation, waves in vacuum and in materials, transmission and reflection at boundaries, guided waves, dispersion, electromagnetic field of moving charges, radiation, Lorentz invariance and other symmetries of Maxwell’s equations.
Prerequisites: PHY 212
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 215 Classical Mechanics I 4 Credits
Kinematics and dynamics of point masses with various force laws; conservation laws; systems of particles; rotating coordinate systems; rigid body motions; topics from Lagrange’s and Hamilton’s formulations of mechanics; continuum mechanics.
Prerequisites: (PHY 021 or PHY 013 or PHY 023) and MATH 205
Can be taken Concurrently: MATH 205
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 220 Advanced Physics Laboratory I 3 Credits
In a lab/lecture format, students learn basic elements needed for experimental, observational and computational work in physics, astrophysics and other technical areas. This course and its continuation as PHY 221 include topics such as electronics, optics, vacuum systems, data acquisition and analysis, curve fitting, scientific computing, interfacing of computers to experiments, and modern machining. These methods will be utilized in the examination of various physical systems; e.g., atomic and molecular spectroscopy, astronomical observations, condensedmatter phenomena, and others.
Prerequisites: (PHY 021 or PHY 023) and PHY 022 and CSE 002
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 221 Advanced Physics Laboratory II 2 Credits
This is a continuation of PHY 220.
Prerequisites: (PHY 021 or PHY 023) and PHY 022 and PHY 220
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 262 Advanced Physics Laboratory 2 Credits
Laboratory practice, including machine shop, vacuum systems, and computer interfacing. Experiment selected from geometrical optics, interference and diffraction, spectroscopy, lasers, fiber optics, and quantum phenomena.
Prerequisites: (PHY 013 or PHY 021 or PHY 023) and PHY 022
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 272 Special Topics In Physics 14 Credits
Selected topics not sufficiently covered in other courses.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
PHY 273 Research 23 Credits
Participation in current research projects being carried out within the department.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 281 Basic Physics I 3 Credits
A course designed especially for secondaryschool teachers in the master teacher program. Presupposing a background of two semesters of college mathematics through differential and integral calculus and of two semesters of college physics, the principles of physics are presented with emphasis on their fundamental nature rather than on their applications. Open only to secondaryschool teachers and those planning to undertake teaching of secondaryschool physics.
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 282 Basic Physics II 3 Credits
Continuation of PHY 281.
Prerequisites: PHY 010 or PHY 011 or PHY 281
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 300 Apprentice Teaching 14 Credits
PHY 321 (BIOE 321) Biomolecular & Cellular Mechanics 3 Credits
Mechanics and physics of the components of the cell, ranging in length scale from fundamental biomolecules to the entire cell. The course covers the mechanics of proteins and other biopolymers in 1D, 2D, and 3D structures, cell membrane structure and dynamics, and the mechanics of the whole cell.
Prerequisites: MATH 205 and MATH 231 and PHY 022 and (PHY 013 or PHY 021 or PHY 023)
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 331 (BIOE 331) Integrated Bioelectronics/Biophotonics Laboratory 2 Credits
Experiments in design and analysis of bioelectronics circuits, micropatterning of biological cells, micromanipulation of biological cells using electric fields, analysis of pacemakers, instrumentation and computer interfaces, ultrasound, optic, laser tweezers and advanced imaging and optical microscopy techniques for biological applications.
Prerequisites: (PHY 013 or PHY 021 or PHY 023) and PHY 022 and ECE 121 and ECE 123 and (PHY 190 or ECE 081)
Can be taken Concurrently: ECE 121, ECE 123
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 332 (ASTR 332) HighEnergy Astrophysics 3 Credits
Observation and theory of Xray and gammaray sources, quasars, pulsars, radio galaxies, neutron stars, black holes. Results from ultraviolet, Xray and gammaray satellites. Generally offered in the spring of oddnumbered years.
Prerequisites: (PHY 021 or PHY 023) and (MATH 023 or MATH 033)
Can be taken Concurrently: MATH 023, MATH 033
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 340 Thermal Physics 3 Credits
Basic principles of thermodynamics, kinetic theory, and statistical mechanics, with emphasis on applications to classical and quantum mechanical physical systems.
Prerequisites: (PHY 013 or PHY 021 or PHY 023) and (MATH 023 or MATH 032 or MATH 052)
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 342 (ASTR 342) Relativity and Cosmology 3 Credits
Special and general relativity. Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes. Super massive stars. Relativistic theories of the origin and evolution of the universe. Generally offered in the spring of evennumbered years.
Prerequisites: (PHY 021 or PHY 023) and (MATH 023 or MATH 033)
Can be taken Concurrently: MATH 023, MATH 033
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 348 Plasma Physics 3 Credits
Single particle behavior in electric and magnetic fields, plasmas as fluids, waves in plasmas, transport properties, kinetic theory of plasmas, controlled thermonuclear fusion devices. Must have senior standing or consent of the department chair.
Prerequisites: (PHY 021 or PHY 023) and MATH 205
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 352 Modern Optics 3 Credits
Paraxial optics, wave and vectorial theory of light, coherence and interference, diffraction, crystal optics, and lasers.
Prerequisites: MATH 205 and (PHY 212 or ECE 202)
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 355 Nonlinear Optics 3 Credits
This course will introduce the fundamental principles of nonlinear optics. Topics include nonlinear interaction of optical radiation with matter, multiphoton interactions, electrooptics, self and cross phase modulation, and the nonlinear optical susceptibilities that describe all these effects in the mainframe of electromagnetic theory.
Prerequisites: PHY 031 and (PHY 213 or ECE 203)
Can be taken Concurrently: PHY 213, ECE 203
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 362 Atomic and Molecular Structure 3 Credits
Review of quantum mechanical treatment of oneelectron atoms, electron spin and fine structure, multielectron atoms, Pauli principle, Zeeman and Stark effects, hyperfine structure, structure and spectra of simple molecules.
Prerequisites: PHY 031 or CHM 341
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 363 Physics of Solids 3 Credits
Introduction to the theory of solids with particular reference to the physics of metals and semiconductors.
Prerequisites: (PHY 031 or MAT 316 or CHM 341) and PHY 340
Can be taken Concurrently: PHY 340
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 364 Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics 3 Credits
Models, properties, and classification of nuclei and elementary particles; nuclear and elementary particle reactions and decays; radiation and particle detectors; accelerators; applications.
Prerequisites: PHY 031 and MATH 205
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 365 Physics Of Fluids 3 Credits
Concepts of fluid dynamics; continuum and molecular approaches; waves, shocks and nozzle flows; nature of turbulence; experimental methods of study.
Prerequisites: (PHY 212 or ECE 202) and (PHY 340 or ME 104)
Can be taken Concurrently: PHY 212, ECE 202, PHY 340, ME 104
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 366 Introduction to String Theory 3 Credits
Introduction to string theory for upperlevel undergraduates and beginning graduate students. Building on Einstein’s theory of general relativity and quantum theory, this course covers the fundamentals of string theory and the latest developments. Advanced topics such as Dbranes, nonperturbative dualities and holography will also be covered. The course content is appropriate to students who have a working knowledge of quantum mechanics and special relativity, and have had some exposure to general relativity. Instructor permission required in lieu of Phy 362/369.
Prerequisites: PHY 031 and PHY 215 and (PHY 362 or PHY 369)
Can be taken Concurrently: PHY 369
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 369 Quantum Mechanics I 3 Credits
Principles of quantum mechanics: Schroedinger, Heisenberg, and Dirac formulations. Applications to simple problems.
Prerequisites: PHY 031 and MATH 205 and PHY 215
Can be taken Concurrently: PHY 215
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 372 Special Topics In Physics 13 Credits
Selected topics not sufficiently covered in other courses.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 380 Introduction to Computational Physics 3 Credits
Numerical solution of physics and engineering problems using computational techniques. Topics include linear and nonlinear equations, interpolation, eigenvalues, ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations, statistical analysis of data, Monte Carlo, and molecular dynamics methods.
Prerequisites: MATH 205
Can be taken Concurrently: MATH 205
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 389 Honors Project 18 Credits
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
PHY 411 Survey Nuclear Particles and Elementary Particle Physics 3 Credits
Intended for nonspecialists. Fundamentals and modern advanced topics in nuclear and elementary particle physics. Topics include: nuclear force, structure of nuclei, nuclear models and reactions, scattering, elementary particle classification, SU(3), quarks, gluons, quark flavor and color, leptons, gauge theories, GUT, the big bang.
Prerequisites: PHY 369
PHY 420 Mechanics 3 Credits
Includes the variational methods of classical mechanics, methods of Hamilton and Lagrange, canonical transformations, HamiltonJacobi Theory.
PHY 421 Electricity & Magnetism I 3 Credits
Electrostatics, magnetostatics, Maxwell’s equations, dynamics of charged particles, multipole fields.
PHY 422 Electricity & Magnetism II 3 Credits
Electrodynamics, electromagnetic radiation, physical optics, electrodynamics in anisotropic media. Special theory of relativity.
Prerequisites: PHY 421
PHY 424 Quantum Mechanics II 3 Credits
General principles of quantum theory; approximation methods; spectra; symmetry laws; theory of scattering.
Prerequisites: PHY 369
PHY 425 Quantum Mechanics III 3 Credits
A continuation of Phys 424. Relativistic quantum theory of the electron; theory of radiation.
Prerequisites: PHY 424
PHY 428 Methods of Mathematical Physics I 3 Credits
Analytical and numerical methods of solving the ordinary and partial differential equations that occur in physics and engineering. Includes treatments of complex variables, special functions, product solutions and integral transforms.
PHY 429 Methods of Mathematical Physics II 3 Credits
Continuation of Physics 428 to include the use of integral equations. Green's functions, group theory, and more on numerical methods.
Prerequisites: PHY 428
PHY 431 Theory Of Solids 3 Credits
Advanced topics in the theory of the electronic structure of solids. Manyelectron theory. Theory of transport phenomena. Magnetic properties, optical properties. Superconductivity. Point imperfections.
Prerequisites: PHY 363 and PHY 424
PHY 442 Statistical Mechanics 3 Credits
General principles of statistical mechanics with application to thermodynamics and the equilibrium properties of matter.
Prerequisites: PHY 340 and PHY 369
PHY 443 Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics 3 Credits
A continuation of PHY 442. Applications of kinetic theory and statistical mechanics to nonequilibrium processes; nonequilibrium thermodynamics.
Prerequisites: PHY 442
PHY 446 Atomic and Molecular Physics 3 Credits
Advanced topics in the experimental and theoretical study of atomic and molecular structure. Topics include fine and hyperfine structure, Zeeman effect, interaction of light with matter, multielectron atoms, molecular spectroscopy, spectral line broadening atomatom and electronatom collisions and modern experimental techniques.
Prerequisites: PHY 424
PHY 455 Physics of Nonlinear Phenomena 3 Credits
Basic concepts, theoretical methods of analysis and experimental development in nonlinear phenomena and chaos. Topics include nonlinear dynamics, including periodmultiplying routes to chaos and strange attractors, fractal geometry and devil’s staircase. Examples of both dissipative and conservative systems will be drawn from fluid flows, plasmas, nonlinear optics, mechanics and waves in disordered media. Must have graduate standing in science or engineering, or consent of the chairman of the department.
PHY 462 Theories of Elementary Particle Interactions 3 Credits
Relativistic quantum theory with applications to the strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions of elementary particles.
Prerequisites: PHY 425
PHY 467 Nuclear Theory 3 Credits
Theory of lowenergy nuclear phenomena within the framework of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics.
PHY 471 Continuum Mechanics 3 Credits
An introduction to the continuum theories of the mechanics of solids and fluids. This includes a discussion of the mechanical and thermodynamical bases of the subject, as well as the use of invariance principles in formulating constitutive equations. Applications of theories to specific problems are given.
PHY 472 Special Topics In Physics 13 Credits
Selected topics not sufficiently covered in other courses.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
PHY 474 Seminar In Modern Physics 3 Credits
Discussion of important advances in experimental physics.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
PHY 475 Seminar In Modern Physics 3 Credits
Discussion of important advances in theoretical physics.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
PHY 482 Applied Optics 3 Credits
Review of ray and wave optics with extension to inhomogenous media, polarized optical waves, crystal optics, beam optics in free space (Gaussian and other types of beams) and transmission through various optical elements, guided wave propagation in planar waveguides and fibers (modal analysis), incidence of chromatic and polarization mode dispersion, guided propagation of pulses, nonlinear effects in waveguides (solitons), periodic interactions in waveguides, acoustooptic and electrooptics.
Prerequisites: PHY 352
PHY 490 Thesis 16 Credits
PHY 491 Research 3 Credits
Research problems in experimental or theoretical physics.
PHY 492 Research 3 Credits
Continuation of PHY 491.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
PHY 499 Dissertation 115 Credits
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Professors. Ivan Biaggio, PhD (ETH Zurich); Gary G. DeLeo, PhD (University of Connecticut); Volkmar R. Dierolf, PhD (University of Utah); John P. Huennekens, PhD (University of Colorado Boulder); Alvin S. Kanofsky, PhD (University of Pennsylvania); Yong W. Kim, PhD (University of Michigan Ann Arbor); H. Daniel OuYang, PhD (University of California Los Angeles); Jeffrey M. Rickman, PhD (Carnegie Mellon University); Michael J. Stavola, PhD (University of Rochester); Jean Toulouse, PhD (Columbia University)
Associate Professors. Jerome C. Licini, PhD (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); Mary Virginia McSwain, PhD (Georgia State University)
Assistant Professors. Sera Cremonini, PhD (Brown University); Aurelia Honerkamp Smith, PhD (University of Washington); Joshua A. Pepper, PhD (Ohio State University); Rosi Jan Reed, PhD (University of California Davis); Ariel T. Sommer, PhD (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
Professor Of Practice. Paola M Cereghetti Biaggio, PhD (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology)
Emeriti. Garold J Borse, PhD (University of Virginia); W. Beall Fowler, PhD (University of Rochester); James D. Gunton, PhD (Stanford University); Albert Peet Hickman, PhD (Rice University); Arnold H. Kritz, PhD (Yale University); George Eadon McCluskey, Jr., PhD (University of Pennsylvania); Shelden H. Radin, PhD (Yale University); Russell A. Shaffer, PhD (Johns Hopkins University)