2016-17 Catalog

Philosophy

Philosophy Home Page

Originally encompassing all fields of study, philosophy remains the foundational discipline of all the disciplines at the university and the core of a liberal arts education. At once both highly theoretical and profoundly practical, philosophical thinking is reflective and critical conceptual activity concerned with some of the most enduring and challenging of fundamental questions about the nature, meaning, and possibilities of human existence, the world, and the ways we think about them. What makes humans human? What is the best way to live?  What can we know?  What really exists? How can we think well?  What are goodness, truth, beauty, space, time, causation, language, consciousness, happiness, freedom, rationality, justice?  Questions like these occur to most people, especially when we are young; cherished beliefs and assumptions about them structure our lives, often without our being aware of them. Philosophers are gripped by such questions and seek to address them through creatively critical thinking, reasoned analysis and argumentation, and thoughtful discussion, instead of making assumptions or accepting answers to them based on opinion or prejudice. The study of philosophy develops skills in careful and flexible thinking, critical analysis, sound reasoning and argumentation, objective evaluation, clear and persuasive writing, and the toleration of uncertainty.

THE MAJOR PROGRAM

The major program in philosophy is designed to provide a broad exposure to the major areas of philosophy as well as a strong grounding in the history of the western philosophical tradition. The program emphasizes the close reading and critical evaluation of classic texts from ancient times to the present, and students can expect to develop sophisticated analytic and expository skills that will enable them to engage in original, critical reflection on their own. The major program provides excellent preparation for graduate study in philosophy as well as a solid foundation for any career that places a premium upon clear, careful thinking, rigorous conceptual and analytical skills, and effective written and oral communication.

The major consists of a minimum of 40 credits in philosophy. These must include PHIL 292 Philosophical Methods (2 credits) for junior majors, the senior thesis sequence PHIL 390 (2 credits) and PHIL 391 (4 credits), and 16 credits of Disciplinary Area courses. At least 12 credits in addition to PHIL 292, PHIL 390, and PHIL 391 must be at the 200-level or above. Independent studies may be taken to satisfy major requirements. No more than 2 Philosophy courses at the 0-level can count toward the major.

Major Requirements

Thesis and Methods
PHIL 292Philosophical Methods2
PHIL 390Senior Thesis2
PHIL 391Senior Thesis4
Disciplinary Areas
Logic
Select one of the following:4
Symbolic Logic
Topics in Philosophical Logic
Mathematical Logic
Ethics
Select one of the following:4
Ethics
Bioethics
Contemporary Ethics
Figures/Themes in Ethics
History of Philosophy
Select two of the following:8
Ancient Philosophy
Hellenistic Philosophy
Medieval Philosophy
Modern Philosophy
Nineteenth Century Philosophy
Contemporary Philosophy
Figures and Themes in Ancient Philosophy
Figures/Themes in Hellenistic Philosophy
Figures/Themes in Medieval Philosophy
Figures/Themes in Modern Philosophy
Figures/Themes in Nineteenth Century Philosophy
Figures/Themes in Contemporary Philosophy
Advanced Courses
Select 12 credits of courses at the 200-level or above 112
Independent Studies
Independent studies may be taken to satisfy major requirements.2
Total Credits38
1

Disciplinary area courses can satisfy this requirement.

Writing-Intensive Requirement

Majors are strongly encouraged to fulfill their junior writing-intensive requirement by taking a WI-designated philosophy course.

Senior Thesis

The senior thesis is a year-long independent project during which philosophy majors, with the consent and under the guidance of a philosophy faculty advisor, investigate a topic of special interest to them. The topic may be historical or non-historical, pure or applied, disciplinary or interdisciplinary; the only constraint is that the topic must be approved by the thesis advisor. Seniors take PHIL 390 in the fall, devoting their energies to refining the topic, working through the bulk of the essential literature, and producing a paper roughly 20 pages in length on the thesis topic. PHIL 391 is taken in the spring semester of the senior year and is focused on investigating the topic more intensively, expanding, revising, and refining the fall paper into a substantial senior thesis roughly 50 pages in length.

Honors

Departmental honors in philosophy are awarded to graduating seniors who satisfy the following two criteria:

  1. at the start of their final semester, their overall GPA is 3.25 or higher and their GPA in philosophy is 3.5 or higher, and
  2. their senior thesis receives an A from the thesis advisor and then is judged by the whole department faculty to be well-researched, well-argued, well-organized, well-written, and to exhibit original philosophical thinking.

Majors planning to pursue graduate study in philosophy are strongly encouraged to strive for Honors and to include the following courses in their programs:

PHIL 105Ethics4
PHIL 114Symbolic Logic4
PHIL 131Ancient Philosophy4
PHIL 135Modern Philosophy4
And at least one of the following:4
Ways of Knowing
Reflecting on Reality
Philosophy of Mind
Total Credits20

The Minor Program

Minor programs are planned in conjunction with the departmental advisor who will help the student plan a program compatible with his or her interests. Minor programs may be, but do not have to be, focused in a particular area such as ethics or the history of philosophy or philosophy of mind.

The minor in philosophy consists of a minimum of 16 credits:

At least one course at the 200-level or above4
At least two courses taught by a member of the Philosophy Department8
Independent studies may be taken to satisfy the minor requirements.4
Total Credits16

Courses

PHIL 002 Intro: Philosophical Questions 4 Credits

One way of understanding philosophy is not as a set of teachings to be mastered but as the rational attempt to formulate, understand, and answer fundamental questions. This course explores some of the most basic questions, including: What is the meaning of life? What is it to be a human person, to be a self? Is human nature fundamentally good or evil? How should we live our lives? What is happiness? What makes a society just? Is knowledge possible? What is really real? Is there a God? Is there such a thing as free will or has the course of our lives been determined by fate, God, or biology?
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 003 (REL 003) Global Religion, Global Ethics 4 Credits

Introduction to philosophical and religious modes of moral thinking, with attention given to ethical issues as they arise cross-culturally in and through religious traditions. The course will reference the United Nations Millennium Goals to consider family life and the role of women, social justice, the environment, and ethical ideals. Particular focus varies but may include one or more of the following: abortion and reproductive health, the death penalty, religiously motivated violence, and problems of personal disorder (heavy drinking, anorexia, vengeance).
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 004 Intro: Belief, Knowledge, and Action 4 Credits

Through reading selected texts in philosophy, from the ancient period to the modern Enlightenment and Romantic reaction, we shall introduce ourselves to some of the central epistemological, ontological, ethical, and socio-political positions developed in relation to their historical and material contexts. A unifying theme thus will be the emergence and evolution of rational thought and its relation to belief, knowledge, and action.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 005 Intro: Contemporary Moral Problems 4 Credits

An examination of contemporary issues that raise questions about right and wrong, good and bad, both for individuals and for social policy, using the methods, theories, and concepts of moral philosophy.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 006 Intro: Conduct and Character 4 Credits

How should we live our lives? How should we act? What kinds of persons should we be? What should we care about? These are among the central questions of philosophy because they are among the most central questions of human existence. This explores answers that have been proposed by thinkers throughout history and across cultures.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 007 Intro: Emerson, Thoreau, and Beyond 4 Credits

Emerson and Thoreau write to revive our dumb words and numb lives. Emerson tells us that what matters is not having lived, but living, not having read somebody's book, but thinking. And somehow all this wonderful excitement comes from creation, from becoming, and all becoming is becoming new. There is no unhappy creation. The literary power of Emerson and Thoreau, of Frederick Douglass, Margaret Fuller and Walt Whitman, is widely recognized, but their philosophical vocation is still repressed. This introduction to philosophy will be through the doors offered by these American authors and their impact on other prominent thinkers.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 008 Intro: Ethics In Global Perspectives 4 Credits

Examination of the moral perspectives of a variety of different ethical outlooks, including Euro-American, Hindu, Buddhist, Confucian, African, and Islamic traditions, and of serious moral problems arising from globalization, including the increasing gap between the rich so-called First World nations and the poor so-called Third World nations, global environmental degradation, war and terrorism.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 010 (ASIA 010, REL 010) Intro to Buddhism: Love Death and Freedom 4 Credits

This course will introduce students to Buddhist practices, philosophical systems, and cultural forms, from Buddhism's Indian origins to its spread in East Asia and Tibet. Students will explore how Buddhists have approached the problem of death, the possibility of freedom, and the forms of social and individual love and concern. Course materials include poetry, biographies, philosophical writings, art and film.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 014 Reasoning and Critical Thinking 4 Credits

Most intellectual endeavors involve reasoning. Whether in everyday discussion about right and wrong, friendly political disagreements, ordinary explanations of natural phenomena, and short letters to editors, or in sophisticated legal debates, national political campaigns, complex treatises, and intricate scientific theories, reasons are constantly invoked to support or criticize points of view. This course develops skills needed to reason well, to analyze and critique others’ reasoning, to distinguish reasoning from mere rhetoric, and to become a savvy consumer of information.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 015 Intro: Friendship 4 Credits

Because of the importance of friendship to be happy and fulfilled human life, philosophers, from ancient times to the present have devoted considerable attention to it. In this , we shall read and discuss a variety of philosophical conceptions of friendship and its value. Among the philosophical classics to be considered are works by Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Augustine, Aquinas, Montaigne, Kant, Thoreau, and Kierkegaard. We shall also consider several contemporary treatments of the subject.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 016 Intro: Free Will and Responsibility 4 Credits

Do we choose who we become as we mature, or is who we become foreordained? Are we born with a unique self, or is the self produced by our interaction with external forces? Are we free agents who can be held responsible for our actions, or is free will an illusion? This course explores these questions and the implications of answers for moral, political, and social values.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 020 Intro: The Examined Life in Film and Literature 4 Credits

Socrates claimed the "the unexamined life is not worth living" and Western philosophers have for 2400 years taken that challenge to heart. But there are other ways of examining the human condition philosophically than in the writings of philosophers. This course uses works of literature (novels, plays, and poems) and film that address the same issues that Western philosophers have addressed, and continue to address: the natures of truth, justice, the good, reality, the self, happiness, the meaningfulness of life.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 023 Intro: Artists on Art and Life 4 Credits

One of the peculiarities of the philosophical study or art, Aesthetics, is that philosophers ignore the writings of artists on art. This introduction to philosophy does not. Aestheticians spend much of their time writing about what art is. Artists are more interested in what art does and how art does it, and those questions will be the focus of this . We will be reading the words of and looking at the artwork of artists who might include: van Gogh, Cezanne, Madeline Gins, Picasso, Alberti, Hogarth, Mondrain, Kandinsky, Klee, Debussy, Leonardo, Le Corbusier, Anne Truit, Schoenberg, Tarkovsky, Boccioni, Alison Knowles, Alan Kaprow, Laurie Anderson, Robert Venturi and Denis Scott Brown, Francis Bacon, and more.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 024 Intro: Good, God, and Evil 4 Credits

The problem traditionally known as "theodicy" asks how God (theos) is related to justice (dike). If the world isn't perfectly good, very good, or even pretty good, how can it be that God is both good and powerful, all-good (omnibenevolent) and all-powerful (omnipotent)? We can solve the problem of God and evil by saying that God is not all that good or not all that powerful-and indeed theologians and others have gone that route. But what if we don't want to relinquish God's goodness or His power? What then can we say? What have the great philosophers and religious thinkers said?
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 027 Intro: Beyond The Edge of Darkness 4 Credits

One of the on-going concerns of philosophical reflection, both East and West, has been to provide an account of the existential landscape within which we find ourselves that offers an alternative to the circumstantial frustrations and tragedies with which our experience seems to confront us. We will examine texts from a variety of trajectories, and traditions, some of which seem designed to highlight our predicament, some of which seem designed to resolve it.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 100 (GS 100, POLS 100) Introduction to Political Thought 4 Credits

A critical examination of political ideologies: Liberalism, Marxism, Fascism, and Islamism.
Attribute/Distribution: ND

PHIL 101 Ancient Political Heritage 4 Credits

Important Political thinkers from the pre-Socratics to early, modern political theorists like Machiavelli.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

PHIL 105 Ethics 4 Credits

Examination of right and wrong, good and bad, from classic sources such as Plato, Aristotle, Hume, Kant, Mill and Nietzsche.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 114 (MATH 114) Symbolic Logic 4 Credits

A first course in logical theory, introducing the notions of logical consequence and proof, as well as related concepts such as consistency and contingency. Formal systems taught may include: term logic, sentence logic, and predicate logic.
Attribute/Distribution: MA

PHIL 116 (HMS 116, REL 116) Bioethics 4 Credits

Moral issues that arise in the context of health care and related biomedical fields in the United States today, examined in the light of the nature and foundation of moral rights and obligations. Topics include: confidentiality, informed consent, euthanasia, medical research and experimentation, genetics, and the distribution of health care.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 117 (AAS 117) Race, Racism, and Philosophy 4 Credits

An introduction to the philosophy born of struggle against racism and white supremacy. We will read the work of philosophers, mostly European, who quietly made modern racism possible by inventing the category of race, but we will concentrate on the work of philosophers, mostly of African descent, who for 200 years have struggled to force a philosophical critique of the category of race and the practice of white supremacy.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 120 Philosophy and Film 4 Credits

This seminar course will explore a variety of themes, genres, and movements within cinema from a philosophical perspective. Regular screenings of films from silent era to present. Content may vary depending upon instructor.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 121 Philosophy and Literature 4 Credits

Exploration of philosophical themes through the study of literature and film. Authors may include: Homer, Euripides, Dante, Rimbaud, Sterne, George Eliot, Valery, Joyce, Melville, T.S. Eliot, Rilke, Proust, Musil, Stevens, Cummings, Camus, Sartre, Beckett, Morrison, Barthelme.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 122 Philosophy Of Law 4 Credits

Analysis of the conceptual foundations of our legal system. Special attention devoted to the nature of law and legal obligation, liberty and privacy in constitutional litigation, justice and contractual obligation, theories of punishment in criminal law, and the nature and scope of responsibility in criminal law.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 123 Art, Beauty, and Aesthetic Experience 4 Credits

Theories, classical and modern, of the nature of beauty and the aesthetic experience. Practical criticism of some works of art, and examination of analogies between arts, and between art and nature.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 124 (REL 124) Philosophy Of Religion 4 Credits

Critical examination, from a philosophical perspective, of some fundamental problems of religion, the nature of religious experience and belief, reason and revelation, the existence and nature of God, the problem of evil, and religious truth.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 125 Social & Political Philosophy 4 Credits

Examination of visions of good social life and values that should shape society so that people are able to live good lives together. Issues covered may include the nature of freedom, how the facts of gender, race, class, ethnic, and cultural differences should be taken into account in social and political relations, the limits of religious tolerance, war, world hunger.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 127 Existentialism 4 Credits

Investigation of the historical development of existentialism from its origins in the 19th century (Kierkegaard, Nietzsche) through its marriage to phenomenology in the early 20th (Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty), and out the other side as a vigorous dimension of much literary, psychological, and artistic work produced in the last 50 years.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 128 Philosophy Of Science 4 Credits

Science obviously works, and newer theories surely are better than the theories they replace, but why does science work, how does it work, and in what sense is it progressive? Is science a revelation of reality, or an account of evolving human experience? Are scientists rational? Is scientific reasoning logical? This course surveys the wide range of 20th century responses to these surprisingly elusive, and surprisingly still open, questions.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 129 (JST 129, REL 129) Jewish Philosophy 4 Credits

Consideration of how major Jewish thinkers from the first to 21st centuries confronted questions at the intersection of religion and philosophy: the existence and nature of God, free will, evil, divine providence, miracles, creation, revelation, and religious obligation.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 131 (CLSS 131) Ancient Philosophy 4 Credits

Historical survey of selected texts and issues in the classical world, from the pre-Socratics through Aristotle, with emphasis on the origins of the western philosophical traditions in ethics, metaphysics, and epistemology.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 132 (CLSS 132) Hellenistic Philosophy 4 Credits

Historical survey of selected texts and issues in post-Aristotelian Greek and Roman philosophy from the fourth century B.C. to the third century A.D. Areas of focus may include epicureanism, stoicism, academic and pyrrohnian scepticism, and neoplatonism.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 133 Medieval Philosophy 4 Credits

Historical survey of selected texts and issues in western philosophy from the fourth to 14th centuries. Attention will be given to the relation between developments in medieval philosophy and major currents in ancient and modern thought. Figures may include Augustine, Eriugena, Anselm, Aquinas, Ockham, and Nicholas of Autrecourt.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 135 Modern Philosophy 4 Credits

Historical survey of selected texts and issues in 17th and 18th century European philosophy with particular emphasis on developments in epistemology and metaphysics. Attention will be given to the relation of the “modern period” to developments in late medieval philosophy and the rise of the experimental sciences. Figures may include Descartes, Leibniz, Locke, Hume, and Kant.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 137 Nineteenth Century Philosophy 4 Credits

Historical survey of selected texts and issues in 19th century philosophy. Areas of focus may include post-Kantian idealism; period-specific critiques of religion, politics, and morality; theories of history; the origins of utilitarianism, pragmatism, existentialism, and mathematical logic; etc. Figures may include Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard, Mill, Peirce, Frege, Nietzsche, James, etc.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 139 Contemporary Philosophy 4 Credits

Philosophical thought from the late 19th century to the present; pragmatism, linguistic analysis, existentialism, and Marxism. Truth and knowledge, values and moral judgment, meaning, the place of the individual in the physical world and society, and the impact of the scientific method upon all of these.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 140 (ASIA 140) Eastern Philosophy 4 Credits

Survey of selected texts and issues in the eastern philosophical traditions. Attention will be given to the development and interrelations of these traditions as well as a comparison of western and eastern treatments of selected issues. Areas of focus may include Confucianism, Taoism, and Zen Buddhism.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 141 (REL 141) Islamic Philosophy 4 Credits

An introduction to medieval Islamic philosophy. The medieval era was the golden age of Islamic civilization, when science, mathematics, theology, philosophy, logic, jurisprudence, etc., flourished. Islamic scientific and philosophical thoughts were greatly influenced by the Greek intellectual tradition, and the Islamic intellectual tradition influenced European thoughts during the Middle Ages and beyond. Thinkers to be studied include al-Kindi, al-Rizi, al-Farabi, Ibn Sina (Avicenna), al-Ghazali, Ibn Tufayl, and Ibn Rush (Averroes).
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 142 (ASIA 142) Zen and Art of the Everyday 4 Credits

The Japanese conception of beauty is strikingly different to our own: it is associated with impermanence, imperfection, and austerity. Moreover, attention to beauty pervades even everyday activities in Japan, such as wrapping purchases at the dollar store or putting out garbage. This course explores principles that guide the Japanese aesthetic sensibility with an eye to its expression in Japanese literature, film, and traditional arts, such as the tea ceremony and gardening.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 145 Philosophy and Technology 4 Credits

This course is an exploration of questions of metaphysics and morality in the digital age. Are new technologies changing our views of metaphysics (what's real) and morality (what's right)? Can classical and contemporary philosophical theories help us think more clearly and make better choices when faced with new technologies? To help answer these questions, students will read a variety of philosophical works that invite critical reflection on a broad array of topics at the intersection of philosophy and technology.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 146 (WGSS 146) Philosophy of Sex and Gender 4 Credits

An examination of concepts, values, and assumptions relevant to gender and sex(uality) in our diverse society, investigating how they affect our lives in both concrete and symbolic ways. Intersections among gender, sex(uality), race, class, religion, ethnicity, etc., will be explored. Special attention will be paid to how gendered assumptions color our understandings of experiences of embodiment and emotion, reasoning and decision-making, knowledge production, and public and private relationships and activities.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 150 Philosophy of Education 4 Credits

A historical survey of major views on the meaning and function of education, this course will address questions such as, What is the role of education in individual human development? What are the goals of education? What are the ideal approaches to meet those goals? What is the relationship between one's view of learning and one's view of teaching? What is the relationship between educational institutions and the state? Does everyone need the same type of education?
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 180 Special Topics 1-4 Credits

Selected topics of philosophy not included in other courses.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 192 (ASIA 192, REL 192) Lehigh in Japan: Kyoto I 3 Credits

This is one of 2 courses that will be part of an intensive international summer school course to take start Summer 2016 in Kyoto University. Students will study aspects of Western and Japanese philosophical thought in a small group led by local and international speakers. Participants in the class will also be local and international. Students will be expected to attend all classes for a number of hours over a period of two weeks.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 193 (ASIA 193, REL 193) Lehigh in Japan: Kyoto II 3 Credits

A second component of the Philosophy summer school in Kyoto will involve a series of excursions to galleries, museums, temples, shrines, stores, and restaurants. Students can expect to develop their understanding of both Japanese aesthetics and the way in which the philosophical systems present in Japan have influenced the Japanese aesthetic sensibility. Students will be required to submit a series of shorter pieces of writing and a final project.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 205 Contemporary Ethics 4 Credits

Examination of significant questions addressed by contemporary moral philosophers. Topics vary, but might include: What is a good person? What kind of life is worth living? What moral issues are raised by gender, race, and class? Is morality relative or absolute? Is morality all that important? Must have completed one HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher, or consent of the instructor.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Prerequisites: PHIL 105
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 206 Figures/Themes in Ethics 4 Credits

This semester course will involve in-depth focus on a major figure in ethics (e.g., Plato, Aristotle, Hume, Kant, Mill, etc.) or on a theme such as relativism, free will, the intersection of religion and ethics, or war. Must have completed one HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 214 (MATH 214) Topics in Philosophical Logic 4 Credits

Topics may include the many systems of non-classical logic, truth theory, the impact of incompleteness and undecidability results on philosophy, the foundational projects of various philosopher/mathematicians, or the work of an important figure in the history of philosophical logic. Consent of instructor required.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: MA

PHIL 217 Figures/Themes in Race, Racism, and Philosophy 4 Credits

An investigation of a significant figure in the philosophy of race (e.g. David Walker, W.E.B. DuBois, Alain Locke, Marcus Garvey, Jean-Paul Sartre, Franz Fanon, Cornel West) and/or an investigation of a significant theme in the philosophy of race (Racial Exploitation, Colonialism, Negritude, Afrocentrism, Black Nationalism, African Philosophy, Black Athena). Content Varies. Must have completed one HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 220 Ways of Knowing 4 Credits

Recent work in theories of knowledge. Questions addressed include: What is knowledge? How does it differ from mere opinion and belief? If you can’t know whether you are dreaming, how can you know you have two hands? Can we know anything at all? Does knowledge require answers to all possible doubts or only reasonable doubts? How should we determine the horizon of the reasonable—psychologically or philosophically? Must have completed one HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 221 Reflecting on Reality 4 Credits

Metaphysics, the study of the basic structure of reality, seeks both to determine at a fundamental level what exists and what it means for something to be real, and to understand the nature of what exists, for example, whether what exists is mind-independent or depends on human thought, and whether different concepts, categories, or perspectives used to describe reality generate different realities. Topics might include social constructionism, universals and properties, identity and individuation, causation, necessity and possibility, realism and antirealism.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 223 Figures/Themes In Aesthetics 4 Credits

An investigation of a significant figure in aesthetics (e.g., Burke, Kant, Hegel, Benjamin, Adorno, Goodman, Kivy, Derrida, Deleuze) and/or an investigation of a significant theme in aesthetics (e.g., sensuality, representation, politics, expressionism, cinematic gore, minimalism, architecture, postmodernism). Content varies. Must have completed one HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 224 (REL 224) Topics in the Philosophy of Religion 4 Credits

Selected problems and issues in the philosophy of religion. Must have completed one HU designated course in Philosophy.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 226 (WGSS 226) Feminism and Philosophy 4 Credits

Analysis of the nature, sources, and consequences of the oppression and exploitation of women and justification of strategies for liberation. Topics include women’s nature and human nature, sexism, femininity, sexuality, reproduction, mothering. Must have completed one HU designated course in philosophy, or one course in Women, Gender, and Sexuality Studies.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 228 Topics in the Philosophy of Science 4 Credits

Themes in the natural, life and social sciences. Must have completed one 100-level HU-designated course or have consent of instructor.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Prerequisites: (PHIL 128)
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 231 (CLSS 231) Figures and Themes in Ancient Philosophy 4 Credits

This seminar course will involve in-depth focus upon a major ancient thinker (e.g. Plato, Aristotle, Sextus Empiricus, Plotinus, etc.) or the classical treatment of a particular theme (e.g.,“human nature,” “the good life,” ethical or political theory, etc.). Content varies. May be repeated for credit if content differs from previous. Must have completed one HU designated course in Philosophy.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Prerequisites: PHIL 105 or PHIL 116 or PHIL 117 or PHIL 121 or PHIL 122 or PHIL 123 or PHIL 124 or PHIL 125 or PHIL 127 or PHIL 128 or PHIL 129 or PHIL 131 or PHIL 132 or PHIL 133 or PHIL 135 or PHIL 137 or PHIL 139 or PHIL 140 or PHIL 141 or PHIL 142 or PHIL 145 or PHIL 146 or PHIL 150
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 232 (CLSS 232) Figures/Themes in Hellenistic Philosophy 4 Credits

This seminar course will involve an in-depth focus upon a major movement in Hellenistic Philosophy (roughly 4th century B.C.E. to the 2nd Century C.E.) such as Epicureanism, Stoicism, Ancient Scepticism, or Neoplatonism, or the Hellenistic treatment of a particular theme (e.g. freedom from anxiety, the nature of the Cosmos and our place within it, or human nature). Content varies. Must have completed one HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 233 Figures/Themes in Medieval Philosophy 4 Credits

This seminar course will involve in-depth focus upon a major medieval thinker (e.g. Augustine, Boethius, Maimonides, Bonaventure, Dante, etc.) or the medieval treatment of a particular theme (e.g. the relation of “will” and “intellect,” the “problem of universals,” ethical or political theory, etc.). Content varies. Must have completed one HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 235 Figures/Themes in Modern Philosophy 4 Credits

This seminar course will involve in-depth focus upon a major 17th or 18th century thinker (e.g. Descartes, Leibniz, Berkeley, Kant, etc.) or the modern treatment of a particular theme (e.g. the nature of “ideas,” the roles of experience, reason, and revelation, ethical or political theory, etc.). Content varies. Must have completed one HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Prerequisites: PHIL 105 or PHIL 116 or PHIL 117 or PHIL 121 or PHIL 122 or PHIL 123 or PHIL 124 or PHIL 125 or PHIL 127 or PHIL 128 or PHIL 129 or PHIL 131 or PHIL 132 or PHIL 133 or PHIL 134 or PHIL 135 or PHIL 139 or PHIL 140 or PHIL 141
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 237 Figures/Themes in Nineteenth Century Philosophy 4 Credits

This seminar course will involve in-depth focus upon a major 19th century thinker (e.g. Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard, Mill, Peirce, Frege, Nietzsche, James, etc.) or the 19th century treatment of a particular theme (e.g. the end of history, revolution, nihilism, authenticity, origins of mathematical logic, infinity, etc.). Content varies. Must have completed one HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 239 Figures/Themes in Contemporary Philosophy 4 Credits

This seminar course will involve in-depth focus upon a major contemporary thinker (e.g. Russell, Whitehead, Husserl, Heidegger, Wittgenstein, Quine, Habermas, Rawls, Rorty, Derrida, Davidson, Foucault, Deleuze, Irigaray, etc.) or the contemporary treatment of a particular theme (e.g. logical positivism, naturalism, non-foundationalism, existential phenomenology, return to virtue, neopragmatism, hermeneutics, post-structuralism, postmodernism, neokantian political theory, the politics of identity, etc.). Content varies. Must have completed one HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 240 (ASIA 240) Figures/Themes in Eastern Philosophy 4 Credits

This seminar course will involve in-depth focus upon a major figure in Eastern thought or upon the Eastern treatment of a particular theme or set of themes. Content varies. Must have completed one HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 241 (REL 241) Critics Of Religion 4 Credits

In recent years, with the resurgence of religion as a significant political force globally, the claims of religion have been subjected to renewed scrutiny and critique. A wide array of scientists, philosophers, and social critics (e.g., Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennet, Sam Harris, Christopher Hitchens) have challenged religion’s basic claims and provide alternative rational, scientifically grounded explanations. However, in many instances, these books fall short of the powerful critiques, previously formulated by philosophers such as Baruch Spinoza and Friedrich Nietzsche, or those of contemporary French philosophers Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze. In this seminar, we shall explore in-depth the critiques of religion contained in the writings of Spinoza, Nietzsche, Sigmund Freud, Foucault and Deleuze. Students will have an opportunity to examine one or more of the recent critiques of religion in light of the arguments of these philosophers.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 250 (COGS 250) Philosophy of Mind 4 Credits

An exploration of the mind-body problem. Are the body and mind distinct substances (dualism); or is there only body (materialism); or only mind (idealism)? Other views to be considered include behaviorism (the view that behavior can be explained without recourse to mental states), and the view that the mind is a complex computer. Must have completed one HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 260 Making Sense of Words 4 Credits

Issues in the philosophy of language, including analysis of the nature of the relation between the words we use and the world in which we live. We will aim to understand how words make sense and how we make sense of ourselves and the world through words. We will examine such central notions as truth, meaning, and reference, as understood in historically influential philosophical theories of language. Must have completed one HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher.
Prerequisites: PHIL 105 or PHIL 116 or PHIL 117 or PHIL 121 or PHIL 122 or PHIL 123 or PHIL 124 or PHIL 125 or PHIL 127 or PHIL 128 or PHIL 129 or PHIL 131 or PHIL 132 or PHIL 133 or PHIL 134 or PHIL 135 or PHIL 139 or PHIL 140 or PHIL 141
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 265 Philosophy of Mathematics 4 Credits

A survey of the main philosophical views on the nature of mathematics and mathematical knowledge, including the classical debate between the logicist, formalist, and intuitionist schools, and the recent debate between realism and antirealism. Some of the material makes use of logical theory. Must have completed one HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 271 Independent Study 1-4 Credits

Individual philosophical investigation of an author, book, or topic designed in collaboration with a philosophy professor. Tutorial meetings; substantial written work. Must have completed one HU- designated course in philosophy. Consent of faculty instructor required.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.

PHIL 292 Philosophical Methods 2 Credits

Methods of and approaches to philosophical research, reasoning, and writing, as preparation for senior thesis. Open only to junior philosophy majors. Department permission required.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 300 Apprentice Teaching 1-4 Credits

Attribute/Distribution: ND

PHIL 303 (MATH 303) Mathematical Logic 3,4 Credits

Detailed proofs for the basic mathematical results relating the syntax and semantics of first-order logic (predicate logic): the Soundness and Completeness (and Compactness) Theorems, followed by a brief exposition of the celebrated limitative results of Gödel, Turing, and Church on incompleteness and undecidability. The material is conceptually rigorous and mathematically mature; the necessary background is a certain degree of mathematical sophistication or a basic knowledge of symbolic logic. Consent of instructor required.
Prerequisites: (PHIL 114)
Attribute/Distribution: MA

PHIL 347 (AMST 347, REL 347) American Religious Thinkers 4 Credits

An examination of the writings of key figures in the history of American religious thought (such as Edwards, Emerson, Bushnell, Peirce, James, Royce, Dewey and the Niebuhrs). Attention will be directed both to the historical reception of these writings and to their contemporary significance. Must have completed one HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher.
Attribute/Distribution: HU

PHIL 364 (POLS 364) Issues In Contemporary Political Philosophy 3-4 Credits

Selected topics in contemporary political philosophy, such as the Frankfurt school, existentialism, legitimation, authenticity, participatory democracy, and the alleged decline of political philosophy.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

PHIL 367 (POLS 367) American Political Thought 3-4 Credits

Critical examination of American political thought from the founding of the Republic to the present. Writings from Madison, Hamilton, and Jefferson to Emma Goldman, Mary Daly, Malcolm X, Henry Kariel, and others will be discussed.
Attribute/Distribution: SS

PHIL 371 Advanced Independent Study 1-4 Credits

Individual philosophical investigation of an author, book, or topic designed in collaboration with a philosophy professor. Tutorial meetings; substantial written work. Must have completed one HU designated philosophy course at 200-level or higher, and have consent of instructor.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: ND

PHIL 390 Senior Thesis 2 Credits

The first part of two semesters of intensive research and writing supervised by the philosophy faculty thesis advisor in anticipation of completing a senior thesis in philosophy. Individual tutorials; substantial written work. Senior standing as a philosophy major and permission of the philosophy faculty thesis advisor required.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: ND

PHIL 391 Senior Thesis 4 Credits

Continuation and completion of PHIL 390 under the guidance of the thesis advisor. Consent of thesis advisor required.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Prerequisites: (PHIL 390)
Attribute/Distribution: ND

Professors. Gordon C. F. Bearn, PhD (Yale University); Mark H. Bickhard, PhD (University of Chicago); Robin S. Dillon, PhD (University of Pittsburgh); John Gillroy, AM (University of Chicago); Roslyn E. Weiss, PhD (Columbia University); Aladdin M. Yaqub, PhD (University of Wisconsin)

Associate Professors. Chad Kautzer, PhD (Stony Brook University); Michael Mendelson, PhD (University of California San Diego)

Assistant Professor. Ricki L. Bliss, PhD (University of Melbourne)

Emeriti. Robert F. Barnes, Jr., PhD (University of California Berkeley); Steven L. Goldman, PhD (Boston University); J. Ralph Lindgren, PhD (Marquette University); Norman P. Melchert, PhD (University of Pennsylvania)