Physics
Physics students study the basic laws of mechanics, heat and thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism, optics, relativity, quantum mechanics, and elementary particles. Students also study applications of the basic theories to the description of bulk matter, including the mechanical, electric, magnetic, and thermal properties of solids, liquids, gases, and plasmas, and to the description of the structure of atoms and nuclei. In addition, students develop the laboratory skills and techniques of the experimental physicist, skills that can be applied in the experimental search for new knowledge or in applications relating to known theories.
A majority of physics graduates go to graduate school in physics, often earning the Ph.D. degree. These graduates take university or college faculty positions, or work on research in a variety of university, government, or industrial laboratories. Some students choose employment immediately after the bachelor’s degree. They use their many approved and free electives to supplement their science background with applied courses, such as engineering, to develop the skills needed for a position in a particular area.
Because of the fundamental role of physics in all natural sciences, students also use the physics major as an excellent preparation for graduate study in many other scientific areas, such as optical engineering, applied mathematics, computer science, biophysics, molecular biology, astrophysics, geology and geophysics, materials science and engineering, meteorology, or physical oceanography. Attractive engineering areas with a high science content include optical communications, aeronautical engineering, nuclear engineering, including both fission and fusion devices; electrical engineering, including instrumentation; electronics and solidstate devices, electrical discharges and other plasmarelated areas; and mechanical engineering and mechanics, including fluids and continuum mechanics. The broad scientific background developed in the physics curriculum is also an excellent background for professional schools, such as law (particularly patent law), medicine, and optometry.
Lehigh offers three undergraduate degrees in physics and two undergraduate degrees in astronomy or astrophysics. The three physics degrees are the bachelor of arts with a major in physics and the bachelor of science in physics in the College of Arts and Sciences, and the bachelor of engineering physics in the College of Engineering and Applied Science. The B.A. with a major in astronomy and the B.S. in astrophysics are in the College of Arts and Sciences and are described in the Astronomy and Astrophysics section of this catalog.
In addition, there are several fiveyear, dualdegree programs involving physics: The ArtsEngineering program (see the ArtsEngineering section of this catalog), the combination of the bachelor of science program in the College of Arts and Sciences with electrical engineering (described below), and the combination of electrical engineering and engineering physics (see the Electrical Engineering and Engineering Physics section of this catalog).
The bachelor of science curriculum in the College of Arts and Sciences requires somewhat more physics and mathematics than the bachelor of arts major, while the latter provides more free electives and fewer hours for graduation. By making good use of the electives in these programs, students can pursue graduate work in physics or physical aspects of other science or engineering disciplines, or technical careers requiring a basic knowledge of physics. The bachelor of arts curriculum is particularly useful for those planning careers in areas where some knowledge of physics is needed or useful, but is not the main subject, such as science writing, secondary school teaching, patent law, or medicine. The bachelor of science in engineering physics curriculum in the College of Engineering and Applied Science requires an engineering concentration in either solid state electronics or optical sciences, in addition to regular physics and mathematics courses. This fouryear program prepares students to do engineering work in an overlap area between physics and engineering. This may involve engineering in a forefront area in which it is desirable to have more physics knowledge than that typically provided in an engineering program. It may be a field of experimental physics which either relies heavily on forefront engineering or in which the nature of the problem dictates that scientists and engineers will accomplish more working together rather than separately.
Requirements and recommended course sequences are described below for programs in the College of Arts and Sciences and in the P. C. Rossin College of Engineering and Applied Science. Note that no more than 6 credits of military science may be applied toward any degree program.
College of Arts and Sciences
B.A. with Major in Physics Program Requirements
PHY 010  General Physics I  4 
or PHY 011  Introductory Physics I  
PHY 013  General Physics II  34 
or PHY 021  Introductory Physics II  
PHY 012  Introductory Physics Laboratory I  1 
PHY 022  Introductory Physics Laboratory II  1 
PHY 031  Introduction to Modern Physics  3 
PHY 220  Advanced Physics Laboratory I  3 
MATH 021  Calculus I  4 
MATH 022  Calculus II  4 
MATH 023  Calculus III  4 
MATH 205  Linear Methods  3 
CHM 030  Introduction to Chemical Principles  4 
Select at least 6 of the following:  18  
Electricity and Magnetism I  
Electricity and Magnetism II  
Introduction to Stellar Astrophysics  
Classical Mechanics I  
HighEnergy Astrophysics  
Thermal Physics  
General Relativity  
Plasma Physics  
Modern Optics  
Nonlinear Optics  
Quantum Mechanics I  
Physics of Solids  
Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics  
Physics Of Fluids  
Quantum Mechanics II  
Introduction to Computational Physics  
Total Credits  5253 
A total of 120 credits are required for the BA in Physics
B.S. in Physics Program Requirements
Mathematics Courses  
MATH 021  Calculus I  4 
MATH 022  Calculus II  4 
MATH 023  Calculus III  4 
MATH 205  Linear Methods  3 
MATH 208  Complex Variables  34 
or MATH 320  Ordinary Differential Equations  
or MATH 322  Methods of Applied Analysis I  
Basic Science Courses  
PHY 011  Introductory Physics I  4 
or PHY 010  General Physics I  
PHY 021  Introductory Physics II  0,4 
PHY 012  Introductory Physics Laboratory I  1 
PHY 022  Introductory Physics Laboratory II  1 
PHY 031  Introduction to Modern Physics  3 
CHM 030  Introduction to Chemical Principles  4 
Laboratory and Computing Courses  
CSE 003  Introduction to Programming, Part A  2 
or CSE 007  Introduction to Programming  
PHY 220  Advanced Physics Laboratory I  3 
PHY 221  Advanced Physics Laboratory II  2 
*Or an equivalent course in scientific computing.  
Intermediate and Advanced Courses  
PHY 212  Electricity and Magnetism I  3 
PHY 213  Electricity and Magnetism II  3 
PHY 215  Classical Mechanics I  4 
PHY 340  Thermal Physics  3 
PHY 362  Quantum Mechanics I  3 
PHY 364  Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics  3 
PHY 369  Quantum Mechanics II  3 
Elective Courses  15  
Select five Physics or Astronomy courses numbered higher than 100. Up to two courses in appropriate technical areas offered in other departments may be substituted, when selected with advisor approval. Students planning graduate work in physics are encouraged to include PHY 273 (Research) among their electives.  
Total Credits  7580 
A total of 123 credits are required for the BS in Physics
RECOMMENDED SEQUENCE OF COURSES
The recommended sequence of courses for physics degree programs are indicated below. General electives are not indicated, but they should be selected in consultation with the advisor so that educational goals and total credit hour requirements are satisfied.
B.A. with a Major in Physics, College of Arts & Sciences
First Year  

Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
WRT 001  3  WRT 002  3 
Big Questions Seminar  34  CHM 030  4 
PHY 010 or 011  4  MATH 022  4 
PHY 012  1  Dist. Req.  4 
MATH 021  4  
1516  15  
Second Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 013 or 021  34  PHY 031  3 
PHY 022  1  MATH 205  3 
MATH 023  4  Elective  67 
Dist. Req.  8  Dist. Req.  4 
1617  1617  
Total Credits: 6265 
B.S. in Physics, College of Arts & Sciences
First Year  

Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
WRT 001  3  WRT 002  3 
Big Questions Seminar  34  CHM 030  4 
PHY 011 or 010  4  MATH 022  4 
PHY 012  1  Distribution Requirement  34 
MATH 021  4  
1516  1415  
Second Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 021  4  PHY 031  3 
PHY 022  1  CSE 003 or 007  24 
MATH 023  4  MATH 205  3 
Dist. Req.  34  Dist. Req.  34 
Elective or Dist. Req.  34  Elective or Dist. Req.  34 
1517  1418  
Total Credits: 5866 
 *
Or an equivalent course in scientific computing.
P.C. Rossin College of Engineering & Applied Sciences
Both concentrations require 131 credit hours. The tables below indicate both course requirements and recommended enrollment sequences.
Bachelor of Engineering Physics
with a concentration in Solid State Electronics
First Year  

Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
ENGL 001  3  ENGL 002  3 
PHY 011 & PHY 012  5  CHM 030  4 
MATH 021  4  MATH 022  4 
ENGR 005  2  ENGR 010  2 
HSS  3  
14  16  
Second Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 021 & PHY 022  5  PHY 031  3 
MATH 023  4  MATH 205  3 
ECO 001  4  MATH 208  3 
ECE 081  4  ECE 123  3 
HSS  4  
17  16  
Third Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 212  3  PHY 213  3 
PHY 220  3  PHY 221  2 
ECE 033  4  PHY 215  4 
ECE 108  4  ECE 126  3 
MATH 322  3  HSS  3 
Elective  3  
17  18  
Fourth Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 340 or ME 104  3  HSS  3 
PHY 363  3  SSE Elec (1)  8 
PHY 362  3  Electives  6 
SSE –Elec  3  
Elective  4  
16  17  
Total Credits: 131 
 (1)
The 11 credit hours of SSE (Solid State Engineering) electives must include ECE 257 or ECE 258 or PHY 273.
Other advanced physics or engineering courses may be included among the SSE electives with the approval of the student’s advisor.
with a concentration in Optical Sciences
First Year  

Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
ENGL 001  3  ENGL 002  3 
PHY 011 & PHY 012  5  CHM 030  4 
MATH 021  4  MATH 022  4 
ENGR 005  2  ENGR 010  2 
HSS  3  
14  16  
Second Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 021 & PHY 022  5  PHY 031  3 
MATH 023  4  MATH 205  3 
ECO 001  4  MATH 208  3 
ECE 081  4  HSS  4 
OE Elec (1)  3  
17  16  
Third Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 212  3  PHY 213  3 
PHY 220  3  PHY 221  2 
PHY 362  3  PHY 215  4 
ECE 108  4  OE –Elec  3 
MATH 322  3  HSS  3 
Elective  3  
16  18  
Fourth Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 340 or ME 104  3  PHY 355  3 
PHY 352  3  Electives  4 
OE –Elec  6  OE –Elec  6 
Electives  6  HSS  3 
18  16  
Total Credits: 131 
 (1)
The 18 credit hours of OE (Optical Engineering) electives must include ECE 257 or ECE 258 or PHY 273. Must include at least two of ECE 347, ECE 348, ECE 371, ECE 372.
Other advanced physics or engineering courses may be included among the OE electives with the approval of the student’s advisor.
Combined B.S.(Physics)/B.S.(Electrical Engineering)
The combined arts/engineering programs resulting in bachelors degrees in both physics and electrical engineering may be arranged so that either of the two degrees is completed within the first four years. The suggested curricula are:
PhysicsElec. Engr (Physics first)
First Year  

Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
WRT 001  3  WRT 002  3 
PHY 011 & PHY 012  5  CHM 030  4 
MATH 021  4  MATH 022  4 
ENGR 005  2  ENGR 010  2 
Distribution Requirement  3  
14  16  
Second Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 021 & PHY 022  5  PHY 031  3 
MATH 023  4  ECO 001  4 
ECE 033  4  MATH 205  3 
ECE 081  4  MATH 208  3 
HSS/Dist. Req.  4  
17  17  
Third Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 212  3  PHY 213  3 
PHY 362  3  PHY 221  2 
ECE 108  4  PHY 364  3 
ECE 182  1  PHY 215  4 
MATH 322  3  ECE 121  2 
Jr. Writing  3  ECE 123  3 
17  17  
Fourth Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 340  3  ECE 126  3 
PHY Appr. Elective  6  ECE 138  2 
HSS/Dist. Req.  6  ECE 125  3 
Elective  3  PHY Appr. Elective  6 
HSS/Dist. Req.  3  
18  17  
Fifth Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
ECE 257  3  ECE 258  2 
MATH 231  3  ECE Appr Elective  9 
ECE 136  3  Elective  3 
ECE Appr Elective  3  
Elective  3  
15  14  
Total Credits: 162 
Elec. EngrPhysics (Electrical Engineering First)
First Year  

Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
WRT 001  3  WRT 002  3 
PHY 011 & PHY 012  5  CHM 030  4 
MATH 021  4  MATH 022  4 
ENGR 005  2  ENGR 010  2 
HSS/Dist. Req.  4  
14  17  
Second Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 021 & PHY 022  5  PHY 031  3 
MATH 023  4  ECE 121  2 
ECE 033  4  MATH 205  3 
ECE 081  4  ECE 123  3 
HSS/Dist. Req.  6  
17  17  
Third Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 212  3  PHY 213  3 
ECE 108  4  ECE 126  3 
ECE 182  1  ECE 138  2 
MATH 208  3  ECE 125  3 
MATH 231  3  ECO 001  4 
Jr. Writing  3  
17  15  
Fourth Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 362  3  PHY 364  3 
ECE 136  3  PHY 215  4 
ECE 257  3  ECE 258  2 
ECE Appr. Elective  6  ECE Appr. Elective  6 
HSS/Dist. Req.  3  
15  18  
Fifth Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHY 340  3  PHY 221  2 
MATH 322  3  PHY Appr Elective  3 
PHY Appr Elective  6  Electives  12 
Electives  3  
15  17  
Total Credits: 162 
Physics approved electives
Select three of the following:  9  
Physics of Solids  
Quantum Mechanics II  
Modern Optics  
or PHY 355  Nonlinear Optics  
Plasma Physics  
or PHY 365  Physics Of Fluids  
Introduction to Computational Physics  
Total Credits  9 
Students must satisfy both the HSS requirements of the College of Engineering and Applied Science and the distribution requirements, including the junior writing intensive requirement, of the College of Arts and Sciences. Courses appropriate for both may be counted in both categories.
Approved electives are subject to the approval of the student’s advisor. Students planning graduate work in physics are advised to include PHY 273 and PHY 369 among their electives.
Astronomy/Astrophysics Degree Programs
(See the Astronomy section in this catalog.)
Research opportunities
A majority of physics, astronomy, and engineering physics majors take advantage of opportunities to participate in research under the direction of a faculty member. Research areas available to undergraduates are the same as those available to graduate students; they are described below under the heading For Graduate Students. Undergraduate student research is arranged informally as early as the sophomore (or, occasionally, freshman) year at the initiation of the student or formally as a senior research project. In addition, a number of students receive financial support to do research during the summer between their junior and senior years, either as Physics Department Summer Research Participants or as Sherman Fairchild Scholars.
The use of electives
The electives available in each of the physics and astronomy curricula provide the student with an opportunity to develop special interests and to prepare for graduate work in various allied areas. In particular, the many available upperlevel physics, mathematics, and engineering courses can be used by students in consultation with their faculty advisors to structure programs with special emphases in a variety of areas such as optical communications, solidstate electronics, or biophysics.
Departmental Honors
Students may earn departmental honors by satisfying the following requirements:
 Grade point average of at least 3.50 in physics courses.
 Complete 6 credits of PHY 273 (research), or summer REU project, submit a written report, and give an oral presentation open to faculty and students.
 Complete three courses from the list:

Select one of the following: 3 HighEnergy Astrophysics General Relativity PHY 348 Plasma Physics 3 PHY 363 Physics of Solids 3 PHY 352 Modern Optics 3 or PHY 355 Nonlinear Optics PHY 369 Quantum Mechanics II 3 PHY 380 Introduction to Computational Physics 3 Any 400 level Physics course
For students majoring in astronomy or astrophysics, see the Astronomy and Astrophysics section of this catalog.
FiveYear combined bachelor/master’s programs
FiveYear programs that lead to successive bachelor and master’s degrees are available. These programs satisfy all of the requirements of one of the five bachelor’s degrees in physics (B.A., B.S., B.S.E.P.) and astronomy/astrophysics (B.A., B.S.), plus the requirements of the M.S. in physics in the final year. Depending upon the undergraduate degree received, one summer in residence may be required. Interested students should contact the associate chair of physics no later than the spring semester of their junior year for further detail.
The minor program
The minor in physics requires 15 credits of Physics and Astronomy courses. These must include PHY 031, plus at least 6 credit hours at the 100 level or above. No more than one course required for a student’s major program can be counted towards the number of credits for the physics minor. The minor program must be approved by the physics department chair or undergraduate advisor to ensure a coherent intellectual theme. Examples of course sequences for the minor program can be found on the Physics Department WebSite.
For Graduate Students
The department of physics has concentrated its research activities within several fields of physics, with the result that a number of projects are available in each area. Current departmental research activities include the following:
Astronomy and Astrophysics. Current research involves theoretical and observational studies of stars and planets. Particular areas of interest in stellar astrophysics are young open clusters, binary stars, Xray binaries, the formation of disks in Be stars, and stellar pulsations. Research on planets involves the discovery and characterization of exoplanets orbiting bright stars and the search for extraterrestrial life.
Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. Current research investigates the physics of quantum manybody systems through studies of ultracold atomic gases. Topics include superfluidity, spin and heat transport, and thermodynamics of strongly interacting Fermi gases. Experiments employ laser cooling and optical trapping to produce quantum degenerate atomic gases, and tailored optical potentials, radiofrequency spectroscopy and other techniques to perform measurements. Research also includes thermalization and condensation of photons in dye media confined within a narrow optical cavity.
Biophysics. Researchers in the physics department employ experimental as well as mathematical and computational modeling to study the organization and dynamics of biological systems. They are involved in interdisciplinary collaborations with researchers in biology, bioengineering and related fields. Areas of research involve experimental and theoretical studies of mechanical properties of cells and biomaterials using techniques such as optical tweezers and optical microscopy; modeling studies of cell division, cell motion, polarized growth, and mating; physics of cytoskeletal selforganization; and experimental study of lipid membranes using microfluidics and confocal microscopy.
Computational Physics. Many of the fields of physics research at Lehigh involve the use of stateoftheart computers to address largescale computational problems. Researchers in the physics department employ computational approaches to model complex manybody systems in condensed matter, biological, and quantum systems; the detection of variable signals in large astronomical surveys; coarsegrained models of biological systems with molecular dynamics, statistical, and continuum methods. The computational research is performed at both high performance computing facilities on campus and in national facilities.
Condensed Matter Physics. Areas of interest include the optical and electronic properties of defects in semiconductors and insulators; collective dynamics of disordered solids; structural phase transitions in ferroelectrics and superconducting crystals; organic molecular crystals; exciton dynamics, singlettriplet conversion, and in general the physics of electronic and optoelectronic devices; the quantum physics of matter, fields, and their interactions at the nanoscale; surfaces, interfaces and heterostructures; emergent physics in lowdimensional materials; strongly correlated electronic systems, topological phases of matter, unconventional superconductivity, and classical and quantum phase transitions.
High Energy Nuclear Experimental Physics. Current research involves the study of relativistic heavyion collisions at the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) and sPHENIX experiments at Brookhaven National labs. This field of research focuses on the study of matter under extreme conditions of temperature, density, and pressure, where the quarks and gluons that make up normal nuclear matter are no longer confined into hadrons. This deconfined matter is called the quark gluon plasma (QGP), and experiments use highenergy probes, such as particle jets and heavy flavor quarks, to determine how quarks and gluons lose energy in this medium.
High Energy Theory. String theory, quantum field theory and cosmology. Areas of interest include the connection between gravitational theories and quantum field theories, holographic gauge/gravity dualities, the behavior of strongly correlated quantum phases of matter, and the evolution of the early universe.
Nonlinear Optics and Photonics. Research topics include nonlinear lightmatter interaction that enables the control of light with light, fourwave mixing, phase conjugation, and wavelength conversion. We develop materials for second and thirdorder nonlinear optics in particular organic molecular assemblies, and in general study materials and effects for photonics and optoelectronics. Examples include single crystals in glass, photonic crystals, holey and other specialty fibers, waveguides, resonant Brillouin scattering, and ferroelectric domain patterning for quasi phase matching. There is also considerable work on applications of photonics to biological systems, nearfield optics, and thermal radiation.
Plasma Physics. Laboratory studies of collisional and collisionless phenomena in supercritical laserproduced plasmas. Laboratory simulation of supernova emissions in the midinfrared by excitation of interstellar nanocrystallites by strong shock waves in a new cryogenic diaphragmless shock tube facility
Soft Condensed Matter and Complex Fluids. Biopolymer networks, biomembranes, and colloidal suspensions are investigated using experimental techniques such as confocal microscopy, laser tweezers, electroosmotic control, microfluidics, in combination with image analysis and computational modeling. Research areas include phase separation on cell membranes, microrheology of macromolecules and living cells, generalized sedimentation equilibrium of colloidal suspensions, active colloidal suspensions far from equilibrium, diffusion in complex and/or crowded environments, and formation and evolution of nanoscale complexes in solutions.
Statistical Physics. Research includes equilibrium and nonequilibrium fluctuations in gases and liquids; genesis and dynamics of disorder in 2D solids near percolation threshold; and modeling of transport in disordered metallic solids under thermal forcing.
Candidates for advanced degrees normally will have completed, before beginning their graduate studies, the requirements for a bachelor’s degree with a major in physics, including advanced mathematics beyond differential and integral calculus. Students lacking the equivalent of this preparation will make up deficiencies in addition to taking the specified work for the degree sought.
At least eight semester hours of general college physics using calculus are required for admission to all 200 and 300level courses. Additional prerequisites for individual courses are noted in the course descriptions. Admission to 400level courses generally is predicated on satisfactory completion of corresponding courses in the 200 and 300level groups or their equivalent.
Facilities for Research
Research facilities are housed in the Sherman Fairchild Center for the Physical Sciences, containing Lewis Laboratory, the Sherman Fairchild Laboratory for Solid State Studies, and a large connecting research wing. Resources include a machine shop, electronics shop, and networked computer facilities.
Lehigh researchers in astrophysics are involved in a number of worldwide astrophysics surveys and collaborations, including the KELT exoplanet survey, the NASA K2 and TESS missions, LSST, and WFIRST. Lehigh researchers in experimental high energy nuclear physics participate in collaborations affiliated with the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Lab. These include the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) and the sPHENIX collaborations.
Instruments used for experimental studies include a wide variety of laser systems, spectrometers, and microscopes. Examples include femtosecond and picosecond pulsed and dye lasers, various spectrometers (Raman and Fouriertransform), a facility for luminescence microscopy, a cell culture facility, and a lasertweezers system for studies of cells and complex fluids. The Fairchild Laboratory also houses a processing laboratory where advanced Si devices can be fabricated and studied.
Several physics professors are also members of interdisciplinary initiatives that offer a wide range of stateofthe art facilities including a fiber drawing tower, waveguide and fiber characterization labs, and a new epitaxy facility for the growth of IIIV semiconductor structures and devices. Worldclass electron microscopy facilities are also available. Members of the physics department also participate in Lehigh’s Emulsions Polymer Institute, the Institute for Functional Materials and Devices, and the Institute for Data, Intelligent Systems, and Computation.
Extensive uptodate computer facilities are available on campus and in the department. High Performance Computing facilities (http://www.lehigh.edu/computing/hpc/), can be accessed directly from graduate student and faculty offices through a high speed backbone. Access to the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE) is available through computing time allocations to Lehigh faculty.
Courses
PHY 005 Concepts In Physics 4 Credits
Fundamental discoveries and concepts of physics and their relevance to current issues and modern technology. For students not intending to major in science or engineering. Lectures, demonstrations, group activities, and laboratories using modern instrumentation and computers. This is a noncalculus course; no previous background in physics is assumed. Three class meetings and one laboratory period per week.
Attribute/Distribution: NS, NW, Q
PHY 009 Introductory Physics I Completion 02 Credits
For students who have Advanced Placement or transfer credit for 2 or 3 credits of PHY 11. The student will be scheduled for the appropriate part of PHY 11 to complete the missing material. The subject matter and credit hours will be determined by the Physics Department for each student. Students with AP Physics C credit for mechanics will take the thermodynamics and kinetic theory part of PHY 11 for one credit. Consent of department required.
Prerequisites: MATH 021 or MATH 031 or MATH 051 or MATH 076 or MATH 075
Can be taken Concurrently: MATH 021, MATH 031, MATH 051, MATH 076, MATH 075
Attribute/Distribution: NS, NW, Q
PHY 010 General Physics I 0,4 Credits
Statics, dynamics, conservation laws, thermodynamics, kinetic theory of gases, fluids. Primarily for architecture, biological science, earth and environmental science students.
Prerequisites: MATH 021 or MATH 031 or MATH 051 or MATH 076 or MATH 075
Can be taken Concurrently: MATH 021, MATH 031, MATH 051, MATH 076, MATH 075
Attribute/Distribution: NS, NW, Q
PHY 011 Introductory Physics I 0,4 Credits
Kinematics, frames of reference, laws of motion in Newtonian theory and in special relativity, conservation laws, as applied to the mechanics of mass points; temperature, heat and the laws of thermodynamics; kinetic theory of gases. Two lectures and two recitations per week.
Prerequisites: MATH 021 or MATH 031 or MATH 051 or MATH 076 or MATH 075
Can be taken Concurrently: MATH 021, MATH 031, MATH 051, MATH 076, MATH 075
Attribute/Distribution: NS, NW, Q
PHY 012 Introductory Physics Laboratory I 1 Credit
A laboratory course taken concurrently with PHY 10 or 11. Experiments in mechanics, heat, and DC electrical circuits. One threehour laboratory period per week.
Prerequisites: PHY 010 or PHY 011
Can be taken Concurrently: PHY 010, PHY 011
Attribute/Distribution: LS, NS, NW
PHY 013 General Physics II 0,3 Credits
A continuation of PHY 10, primarily for biological science and earth and environmental science students. Electrostatics, electromagnetism, light, sound, atomic physics, nuclear physics, and radioactivity.
Prerequisites: (PHY 010 or PHY 011) and (MATH 021 or MATH 031 or MATH 051)
Can be taken Concurrently: MATH 021, MATH 031, MATH 051
Attribute/Distribution: NS, NW, Q
PHY 019 Introductory Physics II Completion 02 Credits
For students who have Advanced Placement or transfer credit for 2 or 3 credits of PHY 21. The student will be scheduled for the appropriate part of PHY 21 to complete the missing material. The subject matter and credit hours will be determined by the Physics Department for each student. Students with AP Physics C credit for electricity and magnetism will take the optics and modern physics part of PHY 21 for one credit. Consent of instructor required.
Prerequisites: (PHY 010 or PHY 011) and (MATH 022 or MATH 032 or MATH 052)
Attribute/Distribution: NS, NW, Q
PHY 021 Introductory Physics II 0,4 Credits
A continuation of PHY 11. Electrostatics and magnetostatics; DC circuits; Maxwell’s equations; waves; physical and geometrical optics; introduction to modern physics. Two lectures and two recitations per week.
Prerequisites: (PHY 010 or PHY 011) and (MATH 022 or MATH 032 or MATH 052)
Attribute/Distribution: NS, NW, Q
PHY 022 Introductory Physics Laboratory II 1 Credit
A laboratory course to be taken concurrently with PHY 13 or 21. One threehour laboratory period per week.
Prerequisites: (PHY 012) and (PHY 021 or PHY 013)
Can be taken Concurrently: PHY 021, PHY 013
Attribute/Distribution: LS, NS, NW
PHY 031 Introduction to Modern Physics 3 Credits
Experimental basis and historical development of special relativity and quantum mechanics; the Schroedinger equation; onedimensional problems; angular momentum and the hydrogen atom; manyelectron systems; spectra; selected applications.
Prerequisites: PHY 013 or PHY 021
Attribute/Distribution: NS, Q
PHY 091 Special Topics In Physics 14 Credits
Selected topics not sufficiently covered in other courses.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 120 Physics of Medical Imaging: Ultrasound and Radiography 3 Credits
An introduction and analysis of the physical principles and effects that underlay medical imaging techniques such as those using ultrasound, xrays or other highenergy radiation. The course will serve as an introduction to intermediate quantum physics and electromagnetism concepts and discuss the effects and data collection techniques that ultimately allow to create an image that a physician can interpret for clinical purposes.
Prerequisites: PHY 021 or PHY 013
Attribute/Distribution: NS, W
PHY 122 Physics of Medical Imaging: Magnetic Resonance 3 Credits
An introduction and analysis of the physical principles and effects that underlay medical imaging techniques based on nuclear magnetic resonance, such as MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). The course will serve as an introduction to intermediate/advanced quantum physics and electromagnetism concepts and discuss the effects and data collection techniques that ultimately allow to create an image that a physician can interpret for clinical purposes.
Prerequisites: PHY 021 or PHY 013
Attribute/Distribution: NS, W
PHY 142 Special Relativity 3 Credits
A development of the special theory of relativity at an introductory/intermediate level. Starting from the equivalence between inertial reference frames, the course will introduce the Lorentz transformations, space and time in different reference frames, the new relativistic versions of kinematics and mechanics, and the relationship between relativity and electromagnetism. Topics include momentum and energy, fourvectors, acceleration and forces, the relativistic version of Newton’s second law, zeromass particles, and the relation between electric and magnetic fields.
Prerequisites: PHY 013 or PHY 021
Attribute/Distribution: NS, Q
PHY 191 Special Topics In Physics 14 Credits
Selected topics not sufficiently covered in other courses.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 212 Electricity and Magnetism I 3 Credits
Electrostatics, magnetostatics, and electromagnetic induction.
Prerequisites: (PHY 021 or PHY 013) and MATH 205
Can be taken Concurrently: MATH 205
Attribute/Distribution: NS, Q
PHY 213 Electricity and Magnetism II 3 Credits
Maxwell’s equations, Poynting’s theorem, potentials, the wave equation, waves in vacuum and in materials, transmission and reflection at boundaries, guided waves, dispersion, electromagnetic field of moving charges, radiation, Lorentz invariance and other symmetries of Maxwell’s equations.
Prerequisites: PHY 212
Attribute/Distribution: NS, Q, W
PHY 215 Classical Mechanics I 4 Credits
Kinematics and dynamics of point masses with various force laws; conservation laws; systems of particles; rotating coordinate systems; rigid body motions; topics from Lagrange’s and Hamilton’s formulations of mechanics; continuum mechanics.
Prerequisites: (PHY 021 or PHY 013) and MATH 205
Can be taken Concurrently: MATH 205
Attribute/Distribution: NS, Q
PHY 220 Advanced Physics Laboratory I 3 Credits
In a lab/lecture format, students learn basic elements needed for experimental, observational and computational work in physics, astrophysics and other technical areas. This course and its continuation as PHY 221 include topics such as electronics, optics, vacuum systems, data acquisition and analysis, curve fitting, scientific computing, interfacing of computers to experiments, and modern machining. These methods will be utilized in the examination of various physical systems; e.g., atomic and molecular spectroscopy, astronomical observations, condensedmatter phenomena, and others.
Prerequisites: PHY 021 and (PHY 022 or CSE 003 or CSE 007)
Attribute/Distribution: LS, NS, Q, W
PHY 221 Advanced Physics Laboratory II 2 Credits
This is a continuation of PHY 220.
Prerequisites: PHY 021 and PHY 022 and PHY 220
Attribute/Distribution: LS, NS, Q
PHY 273 Research 23 Credits
Participation in current research projects being carried out within the department.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: NS, Q
PHY 291 Special Topics In Physics 14 Credits
Selected topics not sufficiently covered in other courses.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 300 Apprentice Teaching 14 Credits
PHY 332 (ASTR 332) HighEnergy Astrophysics 3 Credits
Observation and theory of Xray and gammaray sources, quasars, pulsars, radio galaxies, neutron stars, black holes. Results from ultraviolet, Xray and gammaray satellites. Generally offered in the spring of oddnumbered years.
Prerequisites: (PHY 021) and (MATH 023 or MATH 033) and PHY 031 and PHY 215
Can be taken Concurrently: MATH 023, MATH 033
Attribute/Distribution: NS, Q
PHY 340 Thermal Physics 3 Credits
Basic principles of thermodynamics, kinetic theory, and statistical mechanics, with emphasis on applications to classical and quantum mechanical physical systems.
Prerequisites: (PHY 013 or PHY 021) and (MATH 023 or MATH 032 or MATH 052)
Attribute/Distribution: NS, Q
PHY 342 (ASTR 342) General Relativity 3 Credits
An introduction to Einstein’s theory of general relativity. Topics covered: the geometry of spacetime; curvature and the gravitational field equations; the Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes and more general spacetime geometries; black hole thermodynamics; gravitational waves; the Friedmann–Robertson–Walker geometry and inflationary cosmology; dark energy and the cosmological constant problem.
Prerequisites: (PHY 021) and (MATH 023 or MATH 033) and PHY 215
Can be taken Concurrently: MATH 023, MATH 033, PHY 215
Attribute/Distribution: NS, Q
PHY 348 Plasma Physics 3 Credits
Single particle behavior in electric and magnetic fields, plasmas as fluids, waves in plasmas, transport properties, kinetic theory of plasmas, controlled thermonuclear fusion devices. Must have senior standing or consent of the department chair.
Prerequisites: PHY 021 and MATH 205
Attribute/Distribution: NS, Q
PHY 352 Modern Optics 3 Credits
Paraxial optics, wave and vectorial theory of light, coherence and interference, diffraction, crystal optics, and lasers.
Prerequisites: MATH 205 and (PHY 213 or ECE 203)
Can be taken Concurrently: PHY 213, ECE 203
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 355 Nonlinear Optics 3 Credits
This course will introduce the fundamental principles of nonlinear optics. Topics include nonlinear interaction of optical radiation with matter, multiphoton interactions, electrooptics, self and cross phase modulation, and the nonlinear optical susceptibilities that describe all these effects in the mainframe of electromagnetic theory.
Prerequisites: PHY 031 and (PHY 213 or ECE 203)
Can be taken Concurrently: PHY 213, ECE 203
Attribute/Distribution: NS, Q
PHY 362 Quantum Mechanics I 3 Credits
Principles and basic applications of quantum mechanics. The Schrödinger equation and onedimensional problems. Observables as operators; eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. Angular momentum, central potentials, the hydrogen atom, and spin. Addition of angular momentum. Exchange symmetry, Pauli principle, and multielectron atoms. Selected applications to atoms and molecules, solids, quantum technologies, nuclei, and elementary particles.
Prerequisites: (PHY 031 or CHM 341) and MATH 205
Attribute/Distribution: NS, Q
PHY 363 Physics of Solids 3 Credits
Introduction to the theory of solids with particular reference to the physics of metals and semiconductors.
Prerequisites: (PHY 031 or MAT 316 or CHM 341) and PHY 340
Can be taken Concurrently: PHY 340
Attribute/Distribution: NS, Q
PHY 364 Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics 3 Credits
Models, properties, and classification of nuclei and elementary particles; nuclear and elementary particle reactions and decays; radiation and particle detectors; accelerators; applications.
Prerequisites: PHY 031 and MATH 205 and PHY 362
Attribute/Distribution: NS, Q
PHY 365 Physics Of Fluids 3 Credits
Concepts of fluid dynamics; continuum and molecular approaches; waves, shocks and nozzle flows; nature of turbulence; experimental methods of study.
Prerequisites: (PHY 212 or ECE 202) and (PHY 340 or ME 104)
Can be taken Concurrently: PHY 212, ECE 202, PHY 340, ME 104
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 366 Introduction to String Theory 3 Credits
Introduction to string theory for upperlevel undergraduates and beginning graduate students. Building on Einstein’s theory of general relativity and quantum theory, this course covers the fundamentals of string theory and the latest developments. Advanced topics such as Dbranes, nonperturbative dualities and holography will also be covered. The course content is appropriate to students who have a working knowledge of quantum mechanics and special relativity, and have had some exposure to general relativity. Instructor permission required in lieu of PHY 362/369.
Prerequisites: PHY 031 and PHY 215 and (PHY 362 or PHY 369)
Can be taken Concurrently: PHY 369
Attribute/Distribution: NS, Q, W
PHY 369 Quantum Mechanics II 3 Credits
Applications of quantum mechanics to more complex problems. Bose and Fermi statistics of identical particles. Perturbation theory and applications to atomic structure. Variational method, WKB approximation, and scattering theory. Timedependent perturbation theory and Fermi’s golden rule. Selection of special topics.
Prerequisites: PHY 031 and MATH 205 and PHY 215 and PHY 362
Attribute/Distribution: NS, Q
PHY 380 Introduction to Computational Physics 3 Credits
Introduction to computational modeling of physical systems. Methods for systems of particles and fields with examples drawn from mechanics, chemical kinetics, planetary motion, chaotic dynamics, normal modes and waves, random walks, electrodynamics, biological, thermal and quantum systems. Converting models into welldocumented code organized into manageable tasks. Extracting physical insight. Choice of numerical methods considering accuracy, speed, stability, and conservation laws.
Prerequisites: MATH 205
Can be taken Concurrently: MATH 205
Attribute/Distribution: NS, Q, W
PHY 382 Physics of Cells 3 Credits
This course focuses on the physical principles underlying the organization of living cells, which spans several orders of magnitude in length and time. It provides an introduction to biological physics and relevant concepts of softmatter physics. Topics include: selforganization of filaments and motor proteins of the cytoskeleton that determine cell shape and motion; the plasma membrane as a fluid responsive to environmental and biochemical signals; biological waves and pattern formation; mathematical modeling of biological systems; experimental methods and image analysis.
Prerequisites: (PHY 010 or PHY 011) and (PHY 013 or PHY 021)
Attribute/Distribution: NS, Q, W
PHY 389 Honors Project 18 Credits
Opportunity for Physics majors to pursue an Honors project with consent of department.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: Q
PHY 391 Special Topics In Physics 13 Credits
Selected topics not sufficiently covered in other courses.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Attribute/Distribution: NS
PHY 420 Mechanics 3 Credits
Includes the variational methods of classical mechanics, methods of Hamilton and Lagrange, canonical transformations, HamiltonJacobi Theory.
PHY 421 Electricity & Magnetism I 3 Credits
Electrostatics, magnetostatics, Maxwell’s equations, dynamics of charged particles, multipole fields.
PHY 422 Electricity & Magnetism II 3 Credits
Electrodynamics, electromagnetic radiation, physical optics, electrodynamics in anisotropic media. Special theory of relativity.
Prerequisites: PHY 421
PHY 423 Quantum Mechanics I 3 Credits
The first course in a twocourse sequence on quantum mechanics for graduate students. This course covers the fundamentals of quantum mechanics and quantum dynamics. Topics include matrix mechanics, wave mechanics, and the Dirac formulation; unitary time evolution in the Schrödinger and Heisenberg pictures; exactly solvable problems, such as the harmonic oscillator and the hydrogen atom; theory of angular momentum and addition of angular momentum; and timeindependent approximation methods.
PHY 424 Quantum Mechanics II 3 Credits
The second course in a twocourse sequence on quantum mechanics for graduate students. Topics include timedependent approximation methods and the interaction picture, scattering theory, density matrices and entanglement, and a selection of advanced topics.
Prerequisites: PHY 423
PHY 425 Quantum Mechanics III 3 Credits
A continuation of Phys 424. Relativistic quantum theory of the electron; theory of radiation.
Prerequisites: PHY 424
PHY 428 Methods of Mathematical Physics I 3 Credits
Analytical and numerical methods of solving the ordinary and partial differential equations that occur in physics and engineering. Includes treatments of complex variables, special functions, product solutions and integral transforms.
PHY 431 Theory Of Solids 3 Credits
Advanced topics in the theory of the electronic structure of solids. Manyelectron theory. Theory of transport phenomena. Magnetic properties, optical properties. Superconductivity. Point imperfections.
Prerequisites: PHY 363 and PHY 424
PHY 442 Statistical Mechanics 3 Credits
General principles of statistical mechanics with application to thermodynamics and the equilibrium properties of matter.
Prerequisites: PHY 340 and PHY 369
PHY 443 Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics 3 Credits
A continuation of PHY 442. Applications of kinetic theory and statistical mechanics to nonequilibrium processes; nonequilibrium thermodynamics.
Prerequisites: PHY 442
PHY 446 Atomic and Molecular Physics 3 Credits
Advanced topics in the experimental and theoretical study of atomic and molecular structure. Topics include fine and hyperfine structure, Zeeman effect, interaction of light with matter, multielectron atoms, molecular spectroscopy, spectral line broadening atomatom and electronatom collisions and modern experimental techniques.
Prerequisites: PHY 424
PHY 455 Physics of Nonlinear Phenomena 3 Credits
Basic concepts, theoretical methods of analysis and experimental development in nonlinear phenomena and chaos. Topics include nonlinear dynamics, including periodmultiplying routes to chaos and strange attractors, fractal geometry and devil’s staircase. Examples of both dissipative and conservative systems will be drawn from fluid flows, plasmas, nonlinear optics, mechanics and waves in disordered media. Must have graduate standing in science or engineering, or consent of the chairman of the department.
PHY 462 Theories of Elementary Particle Interactions 3 Credits
Relativistic quantum theory with applications to the strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions of elementary particles.
Prerequisites: PHY 425
PHY 472 Special Topics In Physics 13 Credits
Selected topics not sufficiently covered in other courses.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
PHY 474 Seminar In Modern Physics 3 Credits
Discussion of important advances in experimental physics.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
PHY 475 Seminar In Modern Physics 3 Credits
Discussion of important advances in theoretical physics.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
PHY 490 Thesis 16 Credits
PHY 491 Research 3 Credits
Research problems in experimental or theoretical physics.
PHY 492 Research 3 Credits
Continuation of PHY 491.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
PHY 499 Dissertation 115 Credits
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.