2020-21 Catalog

Business and Economics Graduate Programs and Courses

The College of Business is accredited by AASCB International - the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. Graduate degree programs offered by the college include the Master of Business Administration, the Master of Science in Accounting and Information Analysis, the Master of Science in Accounting (for non-accounting majors), the Master of Science in Applied Economics, the Master of Science in Management, and the Ph.D. in Business and Economics. Interdisciplinary degree programs are offered through partnerships with other colleges: P.C. Rossin College of Engineering and Applied Science - Master of Business Administration and Engineering; P.C. Rossin College of Engineering and Applied Science and the College of Arts and Sciences-Master of Science in Financial Engineering; College of Education-Master of Business Administration and Educational Leadership.  

Courses for the programs are taught by faculty from the Accounting, Data and Technology Analytics (DATA), Economics, Finance, Management, and Marketing departments.

Graduate Degrees in Business Administration and Economics

Candidates for admission to graduate study in the College of Business must provide the results obtained in the Graduate Management Admissions Test (GMAT) for the degree in accounting and information analysis. The GMAT or the Graduate Record Examination general test (GRE) must be submitted for degrees in business administration, analytical finance, economics, and management. International applicants are required to take the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL)  or the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) for admission to the program. Please consult with your program of choice to determine which English tests are appropriate for submission.

Master of Business Administration

Lehigh MBA programs provide rich learning experiences for students. The College of Business offers two MBA programs: the One Year, Full-Time MBA program (1-MBA), and the FLEX MBA program.

One Year, Full-Time MBA program

1-MBA Mission Statement

The One Year, Full-Time MBA Program (henceforth 1-MBA) develops and positions students for organizational and career success as strategic thinkers in an environment that seeks solutions beneficial to business and society. In a 12-month program format, it provides not only a rigorous and comprehensive coverage of fundamental business principles but also helps students use an integrated framework for addressing large, multi-stakeholder organizational challenges. Students in the 1-MBA program will apply their learning in a year-long consulting practicum experience, where students will learn about the consulting mindset and translate this, along with their other MBA coursework, into C-level consulting engagements with real companies. 1-MBA students also have opportunities for extensive networking with peers, alumni, experienced executives, faculty, and coaching professionals.  

The One Year Full-Time MBA Program (henceforth 1-MBA) is designed for individuals who already have at least two years of work experience and wish to either pivot their careers into a business-related area which may not be in their previous field of employment or accelerate their career within their chosen field.  This MBA program is designed to accommodate those from non-business related fields, as well as students whose undergraduate major is in business but who may want to change their focus, such as from finance to marketing.

The 1-MBA program, which starts each summer, is a cohort-based, lockstep program initially to develop core knowledge of functional areas and team building.  These courses emphasize a stakeholder perspectives approach. A consulting practicum provides students with substantive and practical hands-on experience. The final part of the program emphasizes building domain expertise via electives and a focus on data analytics and leadership.  Another feature is a dedicated coaching team consisting of a professional staff member, an alumnus, and a faculty member.

The program offers general elective course work or a concentration in Business Analytics.

Program Requirements

The following are pre-requisites for students prior to arrival on campus to begin the program:
1. Calculus knowledge as evidenced by an acceptable grade in a college-level calculus class
2. English proficiency (for international students) as evidenced by a high TOEFL or IELTS score and via interviews by the admissions committee
3. Economics knowledge as evidenced by an acceptable grade in a college-level elementary economics course
4. Acceptable grades in Approved Online Tests as determined by program faculty, such as
(a) Quantitative Methods, (b) Statistics, (c) Excel

Summer Semester9
PMGT 409Project Management Fundamentals 3
MBA 440Quantitative Methods3
MBA 441Professional Development1
MBA 442Societal Shifts I2
Orientation (Non-credit requirement)
Fall Semester18
Module I (7 weeks)
Functional Area Core Knowledge
MBA 451Accounting 1-MBA1.5
MBA 452Economics and Markets 1-MBA1.5
MBA 453Finance 1-MBA1.5
MBA 454Management - OB/HR 1-MBA1.5
MBA 455Marketing 1-MBA1.5
Module II (7 weeks)
Stakeholders Perspective
MBA 456Strategy 1-MBA1.5
MBA 461Financial Claimants 1-MBA1.5
MBA 462Government & Society 1-MBA1.5
MBA 463Suppliers and Customers 1-MBA1.5
MBA 464Employees 1-MBA1.5
Module III (14 weeks)
MBA 441Professional Development1
MBA 457Consulting Practicum I2
Winter Intersession
MBA 443Societal Shifts II4
Spring Semester16
MBA 465Consulting Practicum II4
BIS 456Business Analytics for Decision Making3
Graduate Elective I 3
Graduate Elective II 3
Graduate Elective III 3
Summary of credit hours
Summer Session9
Fall Semester18
Winter Intersession4
Spring Semester16
Summer Semester9
PMGT 409Project Management Fundamentals 3
MBA 440Quantitative Methods3
MBA 441Professional Development1
MBA 442Societal Shifts I2
Orientation (non-credit requirement)
Fall Semester18
Module I (7 weeks)
Functional Area Core Knowledge
MBA 451Accounting 1-MBA1.5
MBA 452Economics and Markets 1-MBA1.5
MBA 453Finance 1-MBA1.5
MBA 454Management - OB/HR 1-MBA1.5
MBA 455Marketing 1-MBA1.5
Module II (7 weeks)
Stakeholders Perspective
MBA 456Strategy 1-MBA1.5
MBA 461Financial Claimants 1-MBA1.5
MBA 462Government & Society 1-MBA1.5
MBA 463Suppliers and Customers 1-MBA1.5
MBA 464Employees 1-MBA1.5
Module III (14 weeks)
MBA 441Professional Development1
MBA 457Consulting Practicum I2
Winter Intersession
MBA 443Societal Shifts II4
Spring Semester16
MBA 465Consulting Practicum II4
BIS 456Business Analytics for Decision Making3
Approved Graduate Business Analytics I Elective3
Approved Graduate Business Analytics II Elective3
Approved Graduate Business Analytics III Elective3
Summer Session6
BIS 458Data Management for Managers3
Approved Graduate Business Analytics IV Elective3
Summary of Credit Hours
Summer Session (entry)9
Fall Semester18
Winter Intersession4
Spring Semester 16
Summer Session (last semester)6

Program Admission Requirements

Admission to the 1-MBA program will be based on standardized scores on the GMAT or GRE, college transcripts with undergraduate degree conferred, 2 recommendation letters, candidate essays, and interviews. Two (2) years of professional work experience is required. International students must show English proficiency as measured by the TOEFL or IELTS. 

Further information about the 1-MBA Program may be obtained by contacting the Graduate Programs Office of the College of Business, Lehigh University, College of Business, 621 Taylor Street, Bethlehem PA 18015

phone: (610) 758-4450

email: business@lehigh.edu



Lehigh’s FLEX MBA curriculum is a fully integrated model which simulates the business environment in the classroom. Business issues are viewed and taught from the perspective of the firm as a whole rather than along departmental lines. FLEX MBA students acquire skills in leadership, managerial communication, and resource allocation coupled with a comprehensive understanding of complex domestic and global business issues.

Due to the compact and integrated core, students have increased flexibility to tailor the program to their individual needs. Students may select a concentration in business analytics, corporate entrepreneurship, finance, international business, marketing, project management, or supply chain management or pursue a broader experience by selecting courses from a variety of disciplines. Students may only have one concentration.

The FLEX MBA program is available both on campus and online. Students may opt to attend class through both methods of delivery. All FLEX MBA concentrations are currently available through online study.

FLEX MBA Mission Statement

The FLEX MBA program will further the development of organizational leaders and managers. This is accomplished by honing students’ knowledge, skills and abilities through a comprehensive and integrated core curriculum and customized concentrations designed to meet individual needs. The FLEX MBA program will also foster life-long learning through continuing professional education programs.

Innovative Structure

Core Courses
MBA 401Introduction to the Organization and its Environment2
MBA 402Managing Financial and Physical Resources4
MBA 403Managing Information4
MBA 404Managing Products and Services4
MBA 405Managing People4
MBA 406Integrative Experience3
Select 15 credit hours of elective course work. Students may design an area of study in consultation with their advisor or select an area of concentration. Concentrations require the completion of 12 credit hours of the 15 credits required for elective course work. Students may also complete a maximum of six credit hours of electives outside othe College of Business (but within Lehigh University) with proper approvals. All elective courses must be at the 400 level.15
Total Credits36
Business Analytics Concentration
Credits Required12
Directed Electives (6 credits)
BIS 458Data Management for Managers3
BIS 448Predictive Analytics in Business3
BIS 456Business Analytics for Decision Making3
Choose 6 credits:
BIS 452Business Analytics and Modelling3
ECO 403Econometric Software3
GBUS 424Advanced Topics in Financial Management3
GBUS 466Marketing Research and Analysis3
MACC 430Data Analytics for Accountants3
Corporate Entrepreneurship Concentration
Credits Required12
Select 12 credits from any of the following courses:
GBEN 401Business Plan I2
GBEN 402Business Plan II2
GBEN 403Anatomy of Entrepreneurship1
GBEN 404Market Opportunity1
GBEN 405Intellectual Property1
GBEN 406Performing Due Diligence1
GBEN 407Startups & Pivots1
GBEN 409Financial Forecasting1
GBEN 410Financing Startups1
GBEN 412Going Public1
GBEN 413Integrative Experience/New Venture Internship1-4
GBEN 414Ventures in Brand Licensing1
GBEN 415LehighSiliconValley1-3
GBEN 492Special Topics1-3
Finance Concentration
Credits Required12
Directed Electives (6 credits)
GBUS 419Financial Management3
GBUS 420Investments3
Choose 2 of 3 courses (6 credits)
GBUS 424Advanced Topics in Financial Management3
GBUS 426Financial Markets and Institutions3
GBUS 473International Finance3
International Business Concentration
Credits Required9
Select 9 credits from the following courses:
GBUS 473International Finance3
GBUS 475Global Marketing Strategies3
GBUS 492Special Topics (Repeatable, includes immersion trips)1-4
Marketing Concentration
Credits Required12
Select 12 credits from the following:
GBUS 460Strategic Marketing Management3
GBUS 465Creating Breakthrough Innovations3
GBUS 466Marketing Research and Analysis3
GBUS 467Sales Management3
GBUS 470Marketing Communications Strategies3
GBUS 471Strategic Brand Management3
GBUS 475Global Marketing Strategies3
Project Management Concentration
Credits Required12
Directed Electives (7 credits)
PMGT 409Project Management Fundamentals
PMGT 410Project Requirements and Scope Management
PMGT 411Project Scheduling, Estimating & Budgeting
PMGT 413Project Risk Management
PMGT 416Decision Making and Ethics on Projects
Choose 5 credits:
PMGT 412Advanced Scheduling & Scheduling Tools
PMGT 414Managing Project Quality
PMGT 415Project Procurement & Negotiation
PMGT 417Project Leadership
PMGT 418Facilitation and Teamwork for Projects
PMGT 419Adaptive and Agile Project Management 1
PMGT 420Managing Projects for Innovation1
PMGT 421Project Management Capstone
Supply Chain Management Concentration
Credits Required:12
Directed Electives (9 credits)
GBUS 432Demand and Supply Chain Planning3
GBUS 450Strategic Supply Management3
GBUS 453Transportation and Logistics Management3
Select 3 credits
GBUS 447Negotiation3
GBUS 456Applied Supply Chain Models3
BIS 456Business Analytics for Decision Making3
GBUS 492Special Topics1-4


Students should have completed undergraduate courses in computer literacy, and principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics. The prerequisites of financial accounting and statistics may be completed after acceptance into the Flex MBA program

The statistics prerequisite may be fulfilled by having taken a class within the past 5 years and receiving a “B” or better, by taking a proficiency exam administered through the College, or by enrolling in Basic Statistics for Business and Industry or equivalent. The Accounting prerequisite may be waived by enrolling in Financial Accounting for Managers and Investors at Lehigh or by taking a proficiency exam administered by the College.

If a student has no previous background in financial accounting or statistics, he/she is encouraged to take a course in the subject area. If a student has previously taken coursework but has not achieved a grade of “B” or the course has exceeded the time limit, self-directed learning and a proficiency exam may be appropriate.

The prerequisites of financial accounting and statistics must be completed before enrolling in MBA 402 Managing Financial and Physical Resources and/or MBA 403 Managing Information.

Waiver Policy

There are no waivers for courses in the Flex MBA Program.

GMAT or GRE Scores

All applicants are required to take the Graduate Management Admissions Test (GMAT) administered by Pearson Vue or the Graduate Record Exam (GRE) administered by the Educational Testing Service (ETS). Only GRE scores from the revised version taken after August 1, 2011 will be accepted.

Work Experience

Students are required to have a minimum of 2 years of full-time, professional work experience.

International Students/TOEFL

International students must have 16 years of formal education, including four years at the university level, to be considered for admission to Lehigh’s graduate programs. Applicants whose native language is not English are required to take the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). For information, write or call the TOEFL Registration Office, P.O. Box 6154, Princeton, N.J., 08541-6154 or at www.toefl.org .

Flexible Class Scheduling

Classes are scheduled Monday through Thursday evenings, with seminars offered on Fridays and Saturdays and full week immersions available. Part-time students may complete the entire program with evening classes. Many students accelerate completion of the program by taking courses during the two six-week summer sessions.

Further information about the FLEX MBA Program may be obtained by contacting the Graduate Programs Office of the College of Business, Lehigh University, College of Business, 621 Taylor Street, Bethlehem PA 18015

phone: (610) 758-4450

email: business@lehigh.edu


Master of business administration and educational leadership

The MBA & Educational Leadership joint degree program offers students the opportunity to acquire a solid foundation in both business and education. Designed to develop the administrative skills required in today’s educational systems, the MBA/Ed. Leadership provides a framework where excellent education and sound business practices can flourish. The MBA/Ed. Leadership will provide an additional option for business students in educational leadership. The program will enhance the students’ marketability in private and public sector education while providing students with an understanding of the cultures of both business and education. Core courses from both colleges will ensure that recipients of the joint degree will bring to their future positions an extraordinary medley of skills to manage human and financial resources efficiently while employing expertise in instructional supervision and training in both education and corporate settings. This program of study will enhance training and skills for those currently in the area of business and financial management in the field of education. The Lehigh MBA and Educational Leadership degree is a joint, 45 credit hour program.


Applications need to be approved through both the MBA Program and the Educational Leadership program. Students are required to take the GMAT. Students must have at least 2 years of professional post graduate work experience to apply for this joint degree program.

Further information about the program may be obtained by contacting Dr. Floyd D. Beachum, Associate Professor, College of Education, 610-758-5955 or fdb209@lehigh.edu.

Master of Business Administration and Engineering

The University is committed to developing leaders in business and in industry: the MBA & Engineering degree unites two premier programs in one powerful joint degree by offering a solid foundation in both business and engineering.

Graduates of the MBA & Engineering program will be prepared to assume leadership positions in industrial planning, venture capital, and engineering management; and as senior managers in roles requiring both technical and business acumen.

The 45 credit hour program is taught in an interactive manner by faculty who are leaders in their fields with a wealth of practical experience; it also combines core business courses and a core of engineering courses:

The basic 45 credit hour course sequence consists of:

MBA core courses18
Engineering core courses12
Business electives5
Engineering electives6
Free electives3
Integrated project1
Total Credits45

Students can choose an appropriate engineering curriculum from any of the following programs – chemical engineering, civil engineering, computer engineering, computer science, electrical engineering, environmental engineering, industrial and systems engineering, manufacturing systems engineering, materials science and engineering, mechanical engineering, or polymer science and engineering.

MBA Core Courses
MBA 401Introduction to the Organization and its Environment2
MBA 402Managing Financial and Physical Resources4
MBA 403Managing Information4
MBA 404Managing Products and Services4
MBA 405Managing People4

Engineering Core Courses

Each engineering program has its own set of core courses. Course choices are intended to be as flexible as possible, and are tailored to meet the needs of individual students. Further information can be obtained from the appropriate departmental graduate coordinator, or from the Office of Graduate Studies (610-758-6310) in the P.C. Rossin College of Engineering and Applied Science.


Engineering electives are chosen from courses in the appropriate P.C. Rossin College of Engineering and Applied Science (RCEAS) engineering program and the business electives are selected from course offerings in COB. Electives can also be chosen from joint courses that are being developed by RCEAS & COB.


A short interdisciplinary project is required of all students. Project topics, based on the specific interests of each student, will be developed by RCEAS faculty.  


Applications must be accepted by the MBA program and by the relevant department in the P.C. Rossin College of Engineering and Applied Science. When required by the engineering program, students must take the GRE. If this is not required, then the GMAT or GRE examination must be taken. Students will not be required to take both tests.

Further information can be obtained from:

Office of Graduate Studies
P.C. Rossin College of Engineering & Applied Science


The Graduate Programs Office
College of Business

Master of Science in Accounting and Information Analysis

The Lehigh Master of Science in Accounting and Information Analysis (MSAIA) degree program offers an outstanding opportunity to prepare for a career in today’s demanding field of accounting. Accounting professionals are engaged in a variety of services, including assurance (auditing), business valuation, information resources, and consulting. The program focuses on using information and technology to improve business processes and forge business solutions. Accredited by AACSB International, the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, Lehigh’s M.S. in Accounting and Information Analysis program satisfies the 150-hour CPA educational requirement adopted by almost all states. The program serves as an excellent foundation for professional careers as CPAs, CMAs, and related fields. It provides the broad business education employers value so highly.

The Master of Science in Accounting and Information Analysis curriculum is designed to be flexible so that students may choose to concentrate their electives in a specific field, such as finance, or use them for breadth.

Students are encouraged to obtain an internship during the summer prior to beginning the program. The internship will complement the chosen concentration and provide an excellent practical framework to enrich the academic coursework experience.

Non-Accounting Majors

The M.S. in Accounting and Information Analysis program seeks applicants from a variety of academic backgrounds. Those with undergraduate business degrees in fields other than accounting often lack eighteen credits of background requirements in intermediate accounting, cost accounting, accounting information systems, fundamentals of federal income taxation, and auditing. To the extent possible, applicants should take those courses during their undergraduate programs.

Applicants who do not have an undergraduate business degree will likely require two years to complete the program. The first year is devoted to background courses and the second to the graduate program itself.

Mission Statement

Lehigh University’s Master of Science in Accounting and Information Analysis provides a broad business education and the specialized coursework for a professional career in accounting. Graduates aspire to leadership positions at top-tier organizations in fields that include public accounting, corporate accounting, financial services, consulting, and information systems. Through this program, Lehigh continues a long tradition of providing accounting majors with the necessary educational requisites for licensure as certified public accountants within the United States and its territories. The program seeks only the best and the brightest applicants: motivated, dedicated to their studies, not afraid of challenges, possessing confidence, self-discipline, and the ability to articulate their ideas orally and in writing. The program continually pursues the excellence necessary to meet the standards of only the highest-quality educational institutions.

Core Program

The MSAIA core consists of eighteen credits in the courses shown below and thirty credits overall. Designed specifically for this program, and dedicated to it, these innovative courses seek to develop a set of skills and experiences not available in undergraduate programs that will enhance MSAIA students’ ability to perform throughout their chosen careers. Core courses are offered once each academic year.

MACC 412IT Auditing3
MACC 413The Corporate Financial Reporting Environment3
MACC 424Governance, Risk and Control3
MACC 420Fraud Examination and Forensic Accounting3
MACC 427Accounting Research and Regulation3
MACC 430Data Analytics for Accountants3
Select 12 hours in electives.12
Total Credits30


The MSAIA curriculum provides for twelve elective credits that students may use to specialize in an area of interest or to augment one’s general business education. Frequently-taken electives include graduate-level courses in predictive analytics, business information systems, taxation and business decisions, financial statement analysis, corporate financial management, investments, strategic supply management, managerial economics, and strategic marketing management. 

Waiver Policy

There are no waivers for courses in the M.S. in Accounting and Information Analysis Program.

GMAT Scores

All applicants are required to take the Graduate Management Admissions Test (GMAT).  GMAT scores have been averaging 670. A score of at least 600 and 50th percentile in the quantitative sections will improve the prospects for admission. Undergraduate students should take the exam in the senior year. To make an appointment to take the GMAT exam call 1-800-717-GMAT (4628) or by registering online at www.mba.com. The GMAT is waived for Lehigh accounting majors.

President's Scholars

President's Scholars must meet normal admission standards.

International Students/TOEFL®

International students must have 16 years of formal education, including four years at the university level, to be considered for admission to Lehigh’s graduate programs. Applicants whose native language is not English are required to take the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL®). For information, contact www.ets.org/toefl. The MSAIA program features considerable student/faculty interaction in class. Very good English language skills are therefore highly important to success in the program. An internet-based TOEFL (IBT) of 105 will improve the prospects for admission. Admitted applicants typically are required to complete the English as a Second Language American Business English (ABE) program before beginning their graduate program.

Further information about the MSAIA program may be obtained by contacting the Graduate Programs Office of the College of Business, Lehigh University, 621 Taylor Street, Bethlehem PA 18015; phone: (610) 758-4450 email: business@lehigh.edu.; or Professor David Hinrichs, Director, M.S. in Accounting and Information Analysis Program, phone: (610) 758-4674 email: djh404@lehigh.edu.


MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ACCOUNTING (for non-accounting majors)

The MS in Accounting (MSA) degree program provides students with undergraduate degrees in non-accounting areas with the knowledge, skills, professional attitudes, and experiences necessary to begin successful careers in accounting. The program leverages the strengths of Lehigh University’s acclaimed and AACSB accredited undergraduate accounting and MS in Accounting & Information Analysis (MSAIA) programs to serve the needs of graduate students who wish to enter the accounting profession, but lack undergraduate degrees in accounting.

The MSA program is geared toward high-performing individuals who have a bachelor's degree from an accredited university with successful course work in introductory financial accounting and introductory economics.

The MSA program is a full-time, 12-month program requiring a total of 36 credits. During this 12-month period, MSA students will gain the technical accounting knowledge to successfully complete the CPA exam, network with prominent leaders of the accounting profession, hone their professional skills, and have the opportunity for experiential education through an 8-week paid internship in public accounting or industry.

Many graduates of this program will seek to become Certified Public Accountants (CPAs). To that end, the MSA curriculum is designed to meet the accounting educational background requirements for CPA certification in New York, Pennsylvania, and many other states.

The MSA program consists of 36 credits as shown below. Collectively, these courses are designed to help students develop the knowledge, skills, professional attitudes and experiences necessary to begin successful careers in accounting. Each course is offered once per academic year.

MACC 411Accounting Information Systems3
MACC 415Intermediate Accounting I3
MACC 416Intermediate Accounting II3
MACC 407Federal Income Taxation3
MACC 417Advanced Financial Accounting3
MACC 419Auditing3
MACC 423Managerial Accounting3
MACC 490Business Skills for Accounting Professionals3
MACC 430Data Analytics for Accountants3
MACC 420Fraud Examination and Forensic Accounting3
MACC 424Governance, Risk and Control3
Select one elective from among the following courses: 3
MACC 413The Corporate Financial Reporting Environment--
MACC 427Accounting Research and Regulation--
MACC 491Internship in Accounting--
Total Credits36

Further information about the MSA program may be obtained by contacting the Graduate Programs Office of the College of Business, Lehigh University, 621 Taylor Street, Bethlehem PA 18015; phone: (610) 758-4450 email: business@lehigh.edu.; or Professor David Hinrichs, Director, M.S. in Accounting Program, phone: (610) 758-4674 email: djh404@lehigh.edu.


Master of Science in APPLIED Economics

The program requires 30 credit hours, typically completed in 16 months starting in the fall of one academic year and finishing in the fall of the subsequent year.  Some students may complete the program in 12 months by taking extra courses in the fall and spring semesters and in the summer session.

Core Required Courses15
ECO 402Managerial Economics3
ECO 403Econometric Software3
ECO 412Mathematical Economics3
ECO 415Econometrics I3
ECO 417Advanced Macroeconomic Analysis3
Program Tracks - choose one of the two tracks below9
A. Competition and Market Analysis
ECO 404Applied Microeconometrics3
ECO 447Economic Analysis of Market Competition3
Plus one of the following:
ECO 431Quantitative Market Analysis3
ECO 456Industrial Organization3
ECO 463Topics in Game Theory3
ECO 325Consumer Insights through Data Analysis3
ECO 336Antitrust, Regulation, and the New Economy3
BIS 448Predictive Analytics in Business3
B. Policy Economics
ECO 404 Applied Microeconometrics3
Plus two of the following:
ECO 425Cost-Benefit Analysis3
ECO 440Labor Economics I3
ECO 441Labor Economics II3
ECO 428Electricity Economics3
ECO 460Time Series Analysis3
ECO 303Economic Development3
ECO 311Environmental Economics3
ECO 322Competitor and Market Analysis3
ECO 328Electricity Economics3
ECO 336 Business and Government3
ECO 339International Trade3
ECO 340International Finance3
ECO 345Political-Economy of Iraq3
ECO 353Public Economics3
ECO 365Business, Government, and Macroeconomic Policy3
ECO 368Health Economics3
Elective Courses6

Substitutions may be permitted for courses that count toward the program tracks, with approval of the M.S. program advisor.  Students may choose to write an master's thesis as part of their elective credits.  The thesis is worth up to six credit hours and is particularly encouraged for those who may be considering a Ph.D. in economics. 

The M.S. in Applied Economics Director must approve all elective course work outside of economics.

Further information about the M.S. in Applied Economics Program may be obtained by contacting the Graduate Programs Office of the College of Business or Dr. Seth Richards-Shubik, Director M.S. in Applied Economics Program, Lehigh University, College of Business, 621 Taylor Street, Bethlehem PA 18015, email sethrs@lehigh.edu

phone: (610) 758-6243

email: business@lehigh.edu


Master of Science in Management 

The M.S. in Management (M2) is a nine-month program designed to build core business education onto the foundation of a liberal arts or scientific degree (such as engineering or nursing). M2 prepares students with liberal arts or scientific undergraduate education to enter the workforce and ready to hit the ground running from day one.  Eligible applicants are college seniors or recent (one year out) graduates without undergraduate business degrees or majors. Economics majors are welcome. College calculus is helpful but not mandatory for admission.

Students will have classes that include accounting, finance, statistics, management, economics, and marketing. The program is structured to provide classroom instruction in the fall and spring semesters. In addition, the program will include career exploration (such as trips to New York and Washington DC), and professional development (such as presentation skills and business etiquette). During the January intersession, students will have the opportunity to have an optional experiential engagement through internships, consulting projects, and/or international immersion experiences.

ACCT 442Financial Reporting and Analysis2
ACCT 444Accounting for Decision Making2
BIS 423Management Information Systems2
BIS 456Business Analytics for Decision Making3
ECO 427Statistical Analysis for Management2
ECO 448Business Economics3
FIN 418Principles of Corporate Finance and Investments3
LAW 417Regulatory Environment of Business2
MGT 416Managing Talent3
MGT 462Experiential Learning Capstone3
MKT 415Marketing Foundations3
MKT 425Contemporary Topics in Marketing2
SCM 423Supply Chain Operations Management2
Total Credits32
Admission to the M2 program will be based on college transcripts with undergraduate degree conferred, 2 recommendation letters, resume, and candidate essay.  Standardized scores on the GMAT or GRE exam are optional.  International applicants must show English proficiency as measured by the TOEFL or IELTS. 
The GMAT or GRE test score submission is "Optional" for MS in Management (M2) applicants who have earned a non-business undergraduate degree from an accredited college or university with an overall undergraduate GPA of 3.3 or better and meet the following criteria:
Have achieved a transcript documented letter grade of B or better in TWO (2) or more quantitative undergraduate courses. Undergraduate courses considered include calculus, statistics, microeconomics, macroeconomics, and data analytics. Students must submit course descriptions/syllabi with their application for such coursework to be considered.
Applicants who choose not to submit a GMAT or GRE test score and who meet the criteria above will have their applications reviewed by the admissions committee but this is no guarantee of acceptance.   The admissions committee may require the submission of test scores in the event the application is not deemed strong enough to support the waiver request. 
President's Scholars must meet normal admission standards.
Applicants whose native language is not English are required to take the Test of English as a Foreign Language® (TOEFL) or the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) exam.  All international students must show proof of English Proficiency to be admitted to Lehigh. Exception: Applicants who have completed their undergraduate work at an English-speaking college or university are not required to take the TOEFL or IELTS.
An applicant's English proficiency test date may not be older than two years at the time of the application to the program. The Lehigh M2 program will continue to accept all versions of the TOEFL test as long as the scores come directly from the Educational Testing Service (ETS). Scores must be received directly from ETS to be considered official. Lehigh's institution code number is 2365.  IELTS information can be found at ielts.org.  Official test scores must be submitted from the testing agencies directly in order for this requirement to be satisfied.
Further information about the M2  program may be obtained by contacting the Graduate Programs Office of the College of Business, Lehigh University, 621 Taylor Street, Bethlehem PA 18015,  email: business@lehigh.edu; or Alyssa Clapp, Director, M.S. in Management Program, phone: (610) 758-2353, email: alcb@lehigh.edu.


Doctor of Philosophy

Program Requirements

The Ph.D. program requires a minimum of 48 credit hours of study (including dissertation) beyond a master's degree or 72 credit hours of study beyond a bachelor's degree. Each student is required to choose one primary field and one secondary field of specialization. Students must take and complete with satisfactory grades core courses in microeconomic theory, macroeconomic theory, econometrics, and mathematical economics. Students are also required to pass written qualifying examinations in microeconomic theory and econometrics as well as a field exam in their primary field.
In order to advance to Ph.D. candidacy, a student must complete, under the guidance of a faculty, an original third-year research paper no later than the end of their third year in the program. Under the guidance of a dissertation committee, which typically consists of a chairperson (the main advisor) and three committee members one of which being an external member sought outside the Economics Department, a Ph.D. candidate undertakes research culminating in a doctoral dissertation. The Ph.D. is awarded upon the successful completion of the dissertation and its oral defense.
Further information about the Ph.D. in Business and Economics Program may be obtained by contacting the Graduate Programs Office of the College of Business or the Director of the Ph.D. in Business and Economics Program, Lehigh University, College of Business, 621 Taylor Street, Bethlehem PA 18015.

Email: business@lehigh.edu


Business Information Systems Courses

BIS 423 Management Information Systems 2 Credits

This course examines the role of information systems (IS) and information technology (IT) in the organization. The focus of the course is the organizational uses of IS and IT to compete effectively. Both technical and managerial aspects of information systems are explored. The course includes technical infrastructure, management decision-making, trends and innovations in IS, and business process issues critical to the understanding of operational and strategic information systems.

BIS 448 Predictive Analytics in Business 3 Credits

The course covers theories and practices in predictive analytics in business. Students will have hands-on experience on analyzing business data for business intelligence and improved business decision making. Includes: key theories, concepts, and models of predictive analytics; and data mining tools to formulate and solve business problems. The course uses data analytics software and real data. Topics include prediction, forecasting, classification, clustering, data-visualization and data reduction techniques. Not available to students who have credit for BIS 348 or BIS 456.

BIS 452 Business Analytics and Modelling 3 Credits

This course covers advanced analytic methods for understanding and solving business problems. The emphasis is on understanding and applying a wide range of modern techniques to specific decision-making situations. Using the programming language R, the course covers advanced topics such as machine learning, text mining, and social network analysis. Upon completion, students will have valuable practical analytical skills to handle large datasets and make business decisions. Credits will not be given for both BIS 352 and BIS 452.
Prerequisites: BUEC or ECO 045

BIS 456 Business Analytics for Decision Making 3 Credits

Provides students with a theoretical and practical understanding of core data analytics concepts and techniques, and develops hands-on experience in applying these techniques to practical real-word business problems using R software. As an applied course, the emphasis will be less on the inner working of each method and more on when and how to use each technique and how to interpret the results. Not available to students who have credit for BIS 348, 448, 352 or 452.
Prerequisites: MBA 440 or ECO 045 or ECO 427 or BUEC

BIS 458 Data Management for Managers 3 Credits

Covers fundamentals of database management, including database development, processing, logical and physical design, access, implementation and administration, and design and deployment of cloud services solutions. Students will gain extensive experience in developing data models, creating relational databases, formulating and executing complex queries, and understanding cloud services solutions in cloud resource costing, deployment management, network design, data storage, security, scalability and elasticity, cloud migration and hybrid architecture. Hands-on experiences such as such as Oracle Database and Amazon Web Services are included.

Economics Courses

ECO 401 Basic Statistics for Business and Economics 3 Credits

Descriptive statistics, probability and probability distributions, estimation, hypothesis testing, correlation and regression, chi-square analysis, and analysis of variance. Computer applications.

ECO 402 Managerial Economics 3 Credits

Application of economic and statistical analysis to managerial decision-making. Business and economic forecasting. Empirical estimation of demand, production, and cost functions. Resource allocation and pricing strategies in various market structures. Decisions under risk and uncertainty. Government regulation of business cases.
Prerequisites: MATH 021 and (MATH 022 or MATH 096) and ECO 401

ECO 403 Econometric Software 3 Credits

The fundamentals of data management and analysis using statistical software, such as Stata and/or SAS. Students will develop data management and programming skills using the Stata or SAS system. An introduction to R and basic programming in R will be included as well. Working with big data will provide hands-on, practical experience. Upon completion of this course, students will be able to manage data to boost their research and analysis skills.

ECO 404 Applied Microeconometrics 3 Credits

The purpose of this course is to expose students to econometric techniques frequently used in applied microeconomic research. The course features critical reading of empirical research papers and the implementation of econometric methods on actual data sets.

ECO 409 Money, Banking and Macroeconomic Analysis 2 Credits

The role of financial intermediation in the U.S. economy, the process of money creation, impacts of fiscal and/or monetary policy on the goals of macroeconomic policy, inflation and unemployment.

ECO 412 Mathematical Economics 3 Credits

Applications of various mathematical techniques in the formation and development of economic concepts and theories. Consent of instructor required.

ECO 413 Advanced Microeconomics Analysis 3 Credits

A survey of methods of decision-making at the microeconomic level; price theory and econometric applications.
Prerequisites: ECO 402

ECO 414 Advanced Topics in Microeconomics 3 Credits

Resource allocation and price determination. Theories of choice of consumers, firms, and resource owners under various market forms.
Prerequisites: ECO 413

ECO 415 Econometrics I 3 Credits

Computer applications of standard econometric techniques using regression analysis in a single-equation context. Discussion of problems of multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation. An introduction to simultaneous equation models, identification and estimation problems.

ECO 416 Econometrics II 3 Credits

Mathematical and statistical specification of economic models. Statistical estimation and tests of parameters in single and multiple equation models. Prediction and tests of structural change.
Prerequisites: ECO 415

ECO 417 Advanced Macroeconomic Analysis 3 Credits

Macroeconomic theory and policy. Emphasis on theoretical models and policy implications.

ECO 418 Advanced Topics in Macroeconomics 3 Credits

Models of employment, income and growth in monetary economies. Policies for economic stability and growth.
Prerequisites: ECO 417

ECO 423 Real Options 3 Credits

This is an introductory graduate level course in financial economics. It is intended for students with strong technical backgrounds who are comfortable with mathematical arguments. The course is divided into three major parts: deterministic finance, single-period uncertainty finance, and options theory and its applications.
Prerequisites: GBUS 420

ECO 425 Cost-Benefit Analysis 3 Credits

Theory and methods of cost-benefit analysis; efficiency and equity as criteria in program evaluation; proper measurement of market and non-market costs and benefits; consideration of risk, uncertainty, appropriate discounting techniques, and distributional consequences; applications to the evaluation of health care policies and therapies.
Prerequisites: ECO 402 and ECO 415

ECO 427 Statistical Analysis for Management 2 Credits

Descriptive statistical measures, probability and probability distributions, statistical inference (estimation and hypothesis testing), correlation and regression. EXCEL will be used for statistical computing.

ECO 428 Electricity Economics 3 Credits

The course will focus on the intersection between economics and electricity systems, and the market structures available in the electric energy industry. The course is intended to provide a background on basic economic theory applied to power systems, to understand operations objectives, pricing and incentives and non perfect competition situations that arise in the network. Different dispatch optimization problems used in the restructures electricity market will be discussed, approaches to solve these problems, and the existence of non-convex markets.
Prerequisites: ECO 001 and (ECO 146 or MATH 023)

ECO 429 Monetary Theory 3 Credits

The role of money in the economy from theoretical and empirical perspectives. The influence of money and prices, interest rates, output, and employment.

ECO 430 Public Finance 3 Credits

The economics of public spending and taxation; principles of government debt management; theories of budgeting and cost-benefit analysis and public choice.

ECO 431 Quantitative Market Analysis 3 Credits

The course covers the application of empirical approaches to theoretical frameworks in the analysis of market structure, firm strategies, and consumer behavior. Students learn econometric methods to identify causal relationships, and the course emphasizes the role of theoretical models in developing hypotheses and interpreting data. The course covers methods of field experiments and causal inference using non-experimental data. Topics include pricing and market conduct, demand analysis, marketing, and online marketplaces. Students cannot receive credit for both ECO 366 and ECO431.

ECO 440 Labor Economics I 3 Credits

The economics of labor markets and various labor-market institutions with emphasis on current theoretical and empirical research. Topics include labor supply and demand, human capital, the structure of labor markets, labor market regulation, information and job search, labor mobility, unionism, and labor market discrimination.
Prerequisites: ECO 402

ECO 441 Labor Economics II 3 Credits

An examination of empirical research in labor economics, focusing on topics such as human resource management and internal labor market outcomes, wage and income inequality and poverty, unemployment, and other issues current in the literature.
Prerequisites: ECO 402 and ECO 415

ECO 447 Economic Analysis of Market Competition 3 Credits

Mathematical models based on game theory and industrial organization. Cases are used to analyze the strategic interaction of firms and governments as competitors and partners.
Prerequisites: ECO 402

ECO 448 Business Economics 3 Credits

Applications of economic analysis to business decision-making; technology in economic systems; resource allocation and pricing strategies in various market structures; decisions under risk and uncertainty; and government regulation and support of business and innovation.

ECO 454 Economics of Environmental Management 3 Credits

Economic theory of natural resources. Optimal policies for the development of renewable and nonrenewable resources and environmental quality.
Prerequisites: ECO 402

ECO 455 Health Economics I 3 Credits

Economic theory and empirical analysis of health production, the demand for health services, and health insurance. Implications for the current institutional structure of health care and health delivery systems will also be discussed. Additional topics and extensions will be selected based on developments in the literature.
Prerequisites: ECO 402 and ECO 415

ECO 456 Industrial Organization 3 Credits

The goal of the course is to review theoretical and empirical attempts by economists to understand market structures lying between the extremes of perfect competition and monopoly. The course will focus first on describing the current U.S. industrial structure and reviewing models of imperfect competition. The course then shifts to a closer study of individual firm behavior. The final segment of the course is an overview of two significant relationships between government and industry caused by the existence of imperfect.
Prerequisites: ECO 415 and ECO 447

ECO 457 Bio-Pharmaceutical Economics 3 Credits

Characteristics of the market for pharmaceuticals; barriers to entry, competition and innovation; pricing and regulation; physician prescribing behavior; commercialization and financing of biotech startups; international comparisons of public policy.
Prerequisites: ECO 401 and ECO 402

ECO 460 Time Series Analysis 3 Credits

Classical decomposition of time series, trend analysis, exponential smoothing, spectral analysis and Box-Jenkins autoregressive and moving average methods.

ECO 461 Forecasting 3 Credits

Methods of economic and business forecasting.

ECO 463 Topics in Game Theory 3 Credits

A mathematical analysis of how people interact in strategic situations. Topics include normal-form and extensive-form representations of games, various types of equilibrium requirements, the existence and characterization of equilibria, and mechanism design. The analysis is applied to micro-economic problems including industrial organization, inter-national trade, and finance. Must have completed two semesters of calculus.
Prerequisites: ECO 412 and ECO 413

ECO 464 Applied Econometrics I 3 Credits

This course focuses on the identification of causal relationships using cross-sectional and panel data. The objectives are to 1) familiarize students with identification assumptions for causal inference; and 2) enable students to select appropriate econometric tools for empirical economic problems and policy evaluation.Topics include robust inference and bootstrap; instrumental variables and generalized method of moments (GMM); quantile and nonparametric regression methods; treatment effect analysis, and models for discrete choices, panel data, and social interactions.
Prerequisites: ECO 416

ECO 465 Applied Econometrics II 3 Credits

Econometric analysis of skewed and truncated distributions, discrete outcomes, and missing or incomplete data. The first part of this course will involve the functional specification and testing of appropriate estimators in these situations, while the second part of the course will focus on conducting causal inference using nonlinear models in the presence of unobserved heterogeneity. Emphasis will be given to common applications in health and labor economics.
Prerequisites: ECO 416

ECO 466 Health Economics II 3 Credits

Selected topics in the literature on health economics with an emphasis on the application and evaluation of econometric techniques and identification strategies. Both demand and supply side issues will be addressed. Examples of the former include the demand for health, health insurance and health care services, while examples of the latter include the regulation of supplier behavior and industrial organization issues.
Prerequisites: ECO 402 and ECO 416

ECO 472 International Trade Theory 3 Credits

Theories of comparative advantage, factor price equalization, trade and welfare, tariffs, trade and factor movements.
Prerequisites: ECO 413

ECO 473 International Monetary Economics 3 Credits

Theory of the balance of payments, the microeconomics of international finance, various approaches to balance-of-payments adjustments, theories of foreign exchange-rate determination, and macroeconomic policy under fixed and flexible exchange rates.
Prerequisites: ECO 417

ECO 490 Master’s Thesis 0-6 Credits

ECO 492 Special Topics in Economics 1-3 Credits

Extended study of an approved topic not covered in scheduled courses.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.

ECO 493 Doctoral Pre-Dissertation Research Project - Independent Study 1-9 Credits

Independent study on a topic that is being pursued to fulfill the third year paper requirement, and has been approved by the student’s interim advisor.

ECO 499 Dissertation 1-15 Credits

Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.

Finance Courses

FIN 418 Principles of Corporate Finance and Investments 3 Credits

This course provides students with a basic foundational knowledge of finance principles, working knowledge of various aspects of corporate finance, and the principles of investments. Short-term financial decisions will be discussed. Long-term capital investment will be explored starting with the basics of time value of money and capital investment techniques. Topics include the determination of the appropriate investment discount rate, the organization’s cost of capital and hurdle rates, the risk-reward tradeoff, and specific financial instruments.

Grad Business Entrepreneurship Courses

GBEN 401 Business Plan I 2 Credits

This course focuses on the need to validate that a market exists for a new product or service. As a project-based course, students work independently on a venture of their own choosing. They are challenged to make use of primary market research methods to identify demand determinants and test for the presence of first-time buyers. Students search available databases and gather information to estimate market size and growth potential.

GBEN 402 Business Plan II 2 Credits

This course focuses on the need to create a business plan to launch a new enterprise. As a project-based course, students work independently on a venture of their own choosing. Emphasis is given to all the elements needed to commercialize a new enterprise from a marketing, sales, operations, technology, facilities, and financial perspective. The presentation format of the business plan receives close attention as a tool to attract potential investors.
Prerequisites: GBEN 401

GBEN 403 Anatomy of Entrepreneurship 1 Credit

This course focuses on the personality traits and characteristics of a founder. The leadership style and management of a startup are highlighted as the venture moves through various stages of development. Real-life situations are brought into the classroom and students are challenged with decision-making in a startup environment marked by enormous uncertainty and rapid change. Students learn the critical role of the founder in attracting investors and raising capital.

GBEN 404 Market Opportunity 1 Credit

This course focuses on entrepreneurial marketing and the methods employed by emerging growth companies to successfully penetrate and disrupt markets. Speakers and cases illustrate branding strategies, selling approaches, pricing alternatives, and digital marketing tactics peculiar to startups who are constrained by scarce resources and saddled with expertise in the hands of a few.

GBEN 405 Intellectual Property 1 Credit

This course focuses on IP strategy and valuation with emphasis on the technology-driven startup. Early stage companies must demonstrate proof-of-concept to their investors, a huge milestone that verifies the potential of real-world application. Speakers and cases deal with the harsh trade-offs of IP decision-making and the constant need to raise capital to accelerate technology development.

GBEN 406 Performing Due Diligence 1 Credit

This course focuses on due diligence as a creative and time-sensitive process that can open or close doors for startups. Speakers and cases illustrate what potential investors or acquirers do to validate the accuracy, integrity, and completeness of information provided before finalizing an investment decision. Students learn performing due diligence is a labor-intensive investigative process that unfolds in stages where the results also speak to the credibility of the entrepreneur.

GBEN 407 Startups & Pivots 1 Credit

This course focuses on the need to pivot, or shift direction, when market conditions and revenue shortfalls dictate major change. Speakers and cases highlight what startups do to breathe new life into a troubled venture. Students learn how founders raise capital under adverse circumstances in order to buy time to re-configure product, transition to another market and type of customer, and test a new business model.

GBEN 409 Financial Forecasting 1 Credit

This course focuses on the use of pro forma financial statements and projections to value and finance an early stage company. Cases illustrate key assumptions and various scenarios that figure into a multi-year forecast. Business models are evaluated for their profit potential during a period of expansion and growth. Students learn the art and science of valuing a startup.

GBEN 410 Financing Startups 1 Credit

This course focuses on the separate but overlapping worlds of angel investors, venture capitalists, and strategic investors. Their funding role, investment objectives, and market behaviors are analyzed in capital raises for seed through late stage companies. Cases give attention to venture capital and their term sheets. The course culminates in a simulated deal negotiation involving students.

GBEN 412 Going Public 1 Credit

The course focuses on the initial public offering [IPO] or how the venture capital-backed company moves from being privately-held to publicly-held. Major emphasis is placed on the role of the investment banker and the workings of the Securities & Exchange Commission [SEC]. Actual IPOs traded on the NYSE or NASDAQ are dissected from every angle before, during, and after a company goes public.

GBEN 413 Integrative Experience/New Venture Internship 1-4 Credits

Only students enrolled in the Entrepreneurial concentration may elect one of these hands-on, project-orientated s. Integrative Experience must meet the requirements of formal independent study and involve a new venture situation with a startup or existing company. Students employed in a New Venture Internship may also qualify for credit if the same requirements are satisfied.

GBEN 414 Ventures in Brand Licensing 1 Credit

This course focuses on the art and science of building new enterprises by utilizing licensing strategies to leverage the power and influence of brands. A wide cross-section of deal structures and negotiation strategies are explored. Key elements of a licensing contract are dissected from a market, economic, and legal perspective. The approach to learning is hands-on with speakers, interactive exercises, and real-life situations shedding light on the emergence of brand licensing as an alternative path to new venture creation.

GBEN 415 LehighSiliconValley 1-3 Credits

Immersion study-abroad-like program focused on venture capital-backed companies and the paths taken to start, build, and exit an enterprise. Offered in the hub of entrepreneurship, Silicon Valley, live cases draw on seasoned practitioners from all reaches of the venture community. Students strategically analyze and evaluate startups, lead discussion, and assess team performance in recommending go-forward strategies. Emphasis on real companies, real players, and real situations in real time create a highly charged learning environment. Winter term. Includes pre-trip sessions. Competitive admission. Program fees.

GBEN 424 Entrepreneurship & Innovation: From Idea to Opportunity 3 Credits

Thought about starting a business but wonder where to begin? focuses on the idea stage of new venture creation where discovery plants seeds of future enterprises. Student projects, case studies and speakers introduce personal, interpersonal, financial, and legal challenges startups encounter. Drawing on research on entrepreneurial decision-making, students learn to think and behave entrepreneurially. Participants "kick the tires" on their own and others' just-emerging ideas and improve them. For those interested in starting a business sometime in their lives.

GBEN 492 Special Topics 1-3 Credits

GBEN 497 1-3 Credits

Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.

Graduate Business Courses

GBUS 401 Financial Reporting for Managers and Investors 3 Credits

Corporate financial reporting under Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. Analysis and interpretation of financial statements: accrual accounting, balance sheet valuation, income determination and cash flow analysis.Profit manipulation, window dressing and "creative accounting" through accounting policy choices. Fraudulent financial reporting, uses and limitations of accounting information. Accounting information as a tool for strategic decision making.

GBUS 408 Advanced Business Speaking and Pragmatics 2 Credits

Designed to assist international business students become capable communicators within the U.S. and the global marketplace. Students will increase their oral communicative competence and socio-cultural communication awareness through assignments designed to help them learn successful behaviors and customs that are essential elements of oral communication in U.S. graduate business courses, job searching, networking, business presentations, and career development. Students are assessed through their successful use of advanced language functions during the application of face-to-face business settings including business-style negotiations, interviews, presentations, and panel discussions.

GBUS 409 Advanced Business Writing and Reading 2 Credits

Designed to introduce international business students to the types of rhetoric and written structures required in an American university graduate business program, as well as in most business environments; and to provide them with the skills and strategies that are necessary to produce cogent academic essays and papers, as well as business summaries and briefs for the global marketplace. Utilizing a process writing approach, students model expository, chronological order/process, compare and contrast, cause and effect, argumentative, and problem-solution styles, as well as formal and informal business written communication styles. Students are assessed through their successful use of these rhetorical models in writing, their advanced level of academic vocabulary and grammatical structures, as well as through summaries and analyses of research-level articles that include appropriate academic publication conventions.

GBUS 413 Advanced Management Accounting 3 Credits

Issues in management accounting including activity-based costing, activity-based management, strategic cost management, theory of constraints, advanced manufacturing technologies, cost of quality and lifecycle costing. Readings and cases.
Prerequisites: MBA 403

GBUS 414 Financial Statement Analysis and Interpretation 3 Credits

This course focuses on analysis of financial statements. It develops the skills necessary to interpret and use financial statement information effectively to assess profitability and risk and is intended for individuals likely to become intensive users of financial accounting information. Requirements include readings, case studies, presentations, and written analysis of actual financial statements.
Prerequisites: (MBA 402) or (ACCT 151 and FIN 125 or FIN 225)

GBUS 419 Financial Management 3 Credits

An intermediate level course in corporate finance. Coverage includes capital budgeting techniques including real options, decision tree analysis, risk analysis, advanced cost of capital theories, capital structure theory, dividend policy, working capital management, mergers and acquisitions, restructuring, and bankruptcies. The course emphasizes both theory and practice through lectures, cases, and financial modeling exercises. Students not possessing the relevant prerequisites must obtain waivers from the designated finance faculty representative.
Prerequisites: (MBA 402) or (ACCT 151 and FIN 125)

GBUS 420 Investments 3 Credits

A survey course in investments. Overview of financial institutions and markets involved in the issuance and trading of securities. Emphasis on valuation and risk assessment of fixed income and equity securities. Construction of optimal portfolios and examination of performance measures. Students not possessing the relevant prerequisites must obtain waivers from the designated finance faculty representative.
Prerequisites: (MBA 402) or (ACCT 151 and FIN 125)

GBUS 421 Advanced Investments 3 Credits

Advanced topics relating to specific areas within investment finance such as valuation/security analysis; portfolio/risk mamangement; fixed investment securities;mutual funds; hedge funds; microstructure; and trading. Consent of designated finance faculty representative required.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Prerequisites: GBUS 420

GBUS 422 Derivatives and Risk Management 3 Credits

The theory and application of a variety of derivative instruments (options, futures contracts, etc.) used in corporation finance and the financial services industry. The focus is on the risk management application vs. a rigorous development of option pricing theory and similar topics. Consent of designated finance faculty representative required.
Prerequisites: GBUS 420

GBUS 424 Advanced Topics in Financial Management 3 Credits

Advanced topics relating to specific areas of corporate finance such as: theoretical and empirical examination of recent developments in financial management, asset valuation and capital budgeting including the role of uncertainty, imprecise forecasts, risk preferences, inflation, market conditions, and the global marketplace, working capital management, leasing, mergers, and financing. The course content may vary between instructors or each time the course is offered. Consent of designated finance representative.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.
Prerequisites: GBUS 419

GBUS 425 Real Estate Financing and Investing 3 Credits

An upper-level course in modern real estate financing techniques from the perspectives of both the borrower and the lender. Subject matter encompasses the following areas: The principles of financing decisions; financing methods and techniques; institutional sources of funds for real estate; and real estate financing decisions. Consent of designated finance faculty representative required.
Prerequisites: (MBA 402 and GBUS 420)

GBUS 426 Financial Markets and Institutions 3 Credits

Functions and portfolios of financial intermediaries. Sectional demand and supply of funds, nature and role of interest rates, term structure and forecasting, impact of inflation and regulations on financial intermediaries and markets, and current developments in the financial system. Management of assets and liabilities within the U.S. financial institution's legal and economic constraints. Consent of designated finance faculty representative.
Prerequisites: (GBUS 420)

GBUS 431 Quantitative Finance 3 Credits

Relationship of quantitative models to financial theory and applications. Capital budgeting, portfolio selection, security evaluation, cash management, inventory policy and credit analysis. Consent of designated finance faculty.
Prerequisites: MBA 402

GBUS 432 Demand and Supply Chain Planning 3 Credits

Students will learn how businesses work together to build relationships and integrate demand and supply planning activities across the supply chain to deliver superior value to customers. They will also learn about tools and technologies that enable integration as well as the critical drivers and the key metrics that support supply chain performance. Current readings and case studies, simulations and written assignments will be used.

GBUS 437 Federal Taxation and Business Decisions 3 Credits

Impact of federal taxation on the structure and timing of business decisions. Problem-solving methods and research techniques from a managerial perspective.
Prerequisites: ACCT 307

GBUS 442 Seminar in Management Consulting 3 Credits

A study of consulting practices in general and their application to small business. Processes include a field study/counseling service to a local business. Emphasis is on the identification and analysis of multidisciplinary problems and opportunities and the implementation of recommendations. Must have completion of MBA background courses (or equivalent). Consent of instructor required.

GBUS 447 Negotiation 3 Credits

The class examines the behavioral foundations of the negotiation process. Topics include: The negotiation process, negotiation planning, power in negotiations, communications in negotiations, tactics, concepts of win-win and win-lose, social styles, individual and team negotiations, ethical considerations, cultural differences, negotiating in sole source (customer) situations, using third parties. The concepts will be exposed through both lectures and simulations.

GBUS 448 Leadership 3 Credits

This course is an examination of leadership at the organization and group/team levels, and aims to develop and build a student's leadership skills and the ability to diagnose leadership needs in different situations. In identifying and building these leadership skills, the course will focus on the decisions leaders need to make, and the appropriate leadership decision-making processes required in various contexts and at different stages of an organization's existence. Cases and developmental exercises including in-depth decision-making exercises are utilized and cover diverse situations and cross-cultural dimensions including specific situations such as a crisis or ethically difficult decisions.

GBUS 450 Strategic Supply Management 3 Credits

A survey course designed to introduce the MBA/MSE student to the vital role played by supply management in achieving overall effectiveness for the firm in today's global economy. The course starts by examining the traditional purchasing process and then moves on to an examination of the evolution of purchasing into supply management and, finally, to the role purchasing plays in improving effectiveness of the entire value chain. consists of lectures, discussion and case analysis.

GBUS 453 Transportation and Logistics Management 3 Credits

The control of physical distribution and inventories; the flow of information, products and cash through the integrated supply chain.

GBUS 456 Applied Supply Chain Models 3 Credits

This course will present applied and analytic approaches for developing inventory and forecasting models, supplier selection, supply chain quality management, and production planning and supply chain network design.

GBUS 460 Strategic Marketing Management 3 Credits

The course studies the management of contemporary organizations from the perspective of a marketing manager. While the course content addresses the activities required to maintain a strategic fit between an organization's environment and its particular set of objectives and resources, the central focus is on designing strategic marketing actions for various types of organizations. The course pedagogy emphasizes the application of marketing and other business principles through seminars, simulations, or case discussion.
Prerequisites: MBA 404

GBUS 462 Pharmaceutical Marketing 3 Credits

The course provides an introduction and overview of the various healthcare system components as they relate to the pharmaceutical industry. This course will (1) focus on product decisions of the firm, requiring an occasional shift in focus from that of corporate management to that of operating managers of new product activities or established brands; (2) recognize the importance of marketing research as input to product decisions; (3) take a managerial orientation; (4) recognize the need to tailor product policy approaches to the characteristics of the decision-maker and the firm. The course will be a mixture of lectures, discussions, case analyses, and group exercises. Graduate students only.
Prerequisites: MBA 404

GBUS 464 Business-to-Business Marketing 3 Credits

This course focuses on marketing strategies and tactics in firms whose customers are other institutions, not individuals. Topics covered include organizational buying behavior, managing strategic buyer-seller relationships, sales force deployment, communication strategies, and so on. Specific attention is given to the impact of information technology and globalization in the business to business context.

GBUS 465 Creating Breakthrough Innovations 3 Credits

Most products and services either fail or do average business, but some are phenomenally successful. Such products and services that provide phenomenal financial returns and become market leaders can be called "Breakthrough Products and Services". The main objective of the course is to improve our understanding of the process of creating breakthrough products and services. It is accomplished by in-class discussions of cases, assignments, and the state-of-the-art research work in academia and industry. The course concludes with a term paper that integrates the concepts learned from class discussions, reference books, and research papers and applies them to a real product. Must have graduate student status plus two years of postgraduate work experience.

GBUS 466 Marketing Research and Analysis 3 Credits

This course focuses on procedures for collecting and analyzing relevant information for informed decision making by managers. The process of identifying research questions, developing instruments for collecting information, appropriate interpretation of information, and appropriateness of research methods are some of the topics discussed in this course. The course focuses on the process of doing marketing research as well as the techniques for analyzing information. Discussion of concepts and cases, developing data collection instruments, and doing actual marketing research projects will form the key elements of this course.
Prerequisites: (ECO 401 or BUEC )

GBUS 467 Sales Management 3 Credits

This course takes an integrated approach to the study of sales management, including formulation of strategically sound programs and the implementation of selling initiatives and the evaluation and control of the organization’s sales activities. Topics include the role of the sales manager in the divergent demands of multiple constituencies; the development of effective sales organizations; lead generation and quota setting; territory management; and motivation and reward systems. Learning methods include case studies where students’ diagnose problems and develop viable alternatives.

GBUS 470 Marketing Communications Strategies 3 Credits

This course focuses on how various elements of communications are integrated to achieve various organizational objectives. In addition to the traditional communication media such as advertising and point of purchase media, emphasis will also be placed on new media and strategies made possible due to the advances in technology. The course will involve discussion of concepts, case analysis and discussion, insights from practitioners, and group projects.

GBUS 471 Strategic Brand Management 3 Credits

This course approaches the study of brand management by illustrating the formulation of strategically sound brand management programs and the evaluation and control of the implementation of key brand initiatives (new products, advertising support, etc.). Focus is on theories and models to develop and manage brand equity. Specific learning modules include customer development, brand strategy development, brand extension development and annual brand planning. Specific attention is focused on case studies and team projects in building, measuring and managing brand equity.

GBUS 472 Strategies for Services Marketing 3 Credits

The course focuses on the challenges of marketing and managing services (whether in a manufacturing or service business) and discusses the development of strategies for addressing these challenges. The need for cross-functional integration to provide effective service is stressed. Illustrative topics include service quality gap analysis, relationship between superior service and profitability, service encounter analysis, customer lifetime value analysis, services guarantees, and service demand and capacity management.

GBUS 473 International Finance 3 Credits

Consideration of problems arising from the risks associated with international investing and multinational corporation finance (currency, political, etc.). Focus is on (a) investing in international market given the institutional constraints and differences between domestic markets, and (b) managerial issues relating to corporations, investors, and financial institutions. Consent of designated finance faculty representative.
Prerequisites: GBUS 419

GBUS 475 Global Marketing Strategies 3 Credits

The course is designed to provide a framework within which global marketing operation can be analyzed, understood, and undertaken. The course focuses on issues that are being faced by firms in today's global marketplace, particularly those that are related to strategy formulation and implementation. The learning experience in this course is placed on global business decision-making, through the use of case studies, projects, exercises, and lectures.

GBUS 484 Financial Engineering Professional Development 0 Credits

Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.

GBUS 485 Financial Engineering Practicum Capstone 3 Credits

GBUS 490 Thesis 0-6 Credits

GBUS 492 Special Topics 1-4 Credits

Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.

GBUS 494 Field Projects 1-4 Credits

The field projects course will provide MBA students with an opportunity to apply MBA concepts with an employer, corporate partner or other suitable organization. Students will work with a supervising professor and a corporate representative on a project designed by the student. Students must prepare a written proposal for the project including the expected outcomes and an estimate of the hours required for completion. Students will present their proposal to a faculty member of their choice for approval. The academic rigor and time required to complete the project will determine the number of credits earned.

GBUS 499 Dissertation 1-12 Credits

Graduate MBA Core Courses

MBA 401 Introduction to the Organization and its Environment 2 Credits

An MBA core course designed to provide a thorough understanding of business organizations by examining strategies middle and senior managers use to create and sustain organizational competitive advantage. The course examines the organization from an overall perspective within the context of the firm's internal and external environment. The second aspect of this course deals with the ability to communicate effectively in today's business and professional environment. Students will examine and practice the written and verbal communications strategies and skills that are essential to their success in business.

MBA 402 Managing Financial and Physical Resources 4 Credits

An MBA core course designed to integrate financial and managerial concepts into operations decisions. Disciplines of accounting, finance and economics are combined to provide substantive foundations for discussing and analyzing data. Implications of analysis are applied to facilitate decision-making in other areas such as marketing, operations (manufacturing, logistics and engineering), human resources, information technology and general management. The major learning objectives will be applied through a series of "living" cases that are centered on analyzing historical financial performance, preparing a business plan, and valuing a business.
Prerequisites: (MBA 401 and GBUS 401 or BUAC )
Can be taken Concurrently: MBA 401

MBA 403 Managing Information 4 Credits

An MBA core course dealing with concepts and methods involved in the collection, organization and dissemination of information that helps managers make operational and strategic decisions. The course also deals with attributes of information and examines enterprise-wide impacts of local decisions. Revenue, cost, time and quality-based information are accorded equal emphasis, while students are exposed to alternative evaluation methods for decisions related to different parts of the value chain. Topics include: activity-based costing; activity-based management; transaction analysis; operational and strategic decisions such as outsourcing, design partnerships, etc; investment analysis for short lifecycle investments; evaluation of uncertainty, risk and ambiguity; metrics development; compensation policies; segment evaluation methods; target costing and functional analysis; quality function deployment; total cost of ownership; and transfer pricing. In addition, the course deals with: information technology enablers which allow firms to improve value delivered to customers; and evaluation and management of emerging forms of Cooperation, such as joint ventures and project based strategic alliances.
Prerequisites: (ECO 401 or BUEC ) and (GBUS 401 or BUAC and MBA 401)
Can be taken Concurrently: MBA 401

MBA 404 Managing Products and Services 4 Credits

An MBA core course focusing on the management of products and services within a firm's value chain. The course addresses exceeding customer expectations, establishing total quality as the core foundation, developing a strong customer focus, creating value through supply chain management, developing new products for competitive advantage, matching aggregate supply with customer demand, and designing market channels and influencing customers.
Prerequisites: MBA 401
Can be taken Concurrently: MBA 401

MBA 405 Managing People 4 Credits

An MBA core course that examines how effective organizations are created, maintained, and improved. The course will focus on how good people are attracted to an organization and how to make them productive. Topics include: organizational design, job design, staffing, training and development, performance, teams, influence, diversity, change, ethical decision-making and current people issues facing today's organizations.
Prerequisites: MBA 401
Can be taken Concurrently: MBA 401

MBA 406 Integrative Experience 3 Credits

An MBA course where students apply the body of knowledge acquired in MBA 401 through 405 through a simulation, case presentations and the cross core project. This course places an emphasis on strategic management and takes the point of view of the general manager to view the organization from an overall perspective in the context of the firm's internal and external environment. In doing so, students examine historical perspectives, contemporary theories, and practical applications all in the spirit of helping them develop a broad understanding of strategic management issues and solutions. By combining high-level class discussions, case analyses, a computer simulation competition and the crosscore project this course exposes students to rigorous theoretical analysis while providing hands-on, simulated real world business experiences.
Prerequisites: (MBA 401 and MBA 402 and MBA 403 and MBA 404 and MBA 405)
Can be taken Concurrently: MBA 403

MBA 440 Quantitative Methods 3 Credits

The course develops an understanding of the foundational methods and skills of quantitative analysis to a variety of business and economic situations. Areas of focus include probability concepts, data description and visualization, estimation, hypothesis testing, correlation, and regression. Software packages are used for statistical computing and data analysis.

MBA 441 Professional Development 1 Credit

The course focus is on career-enhancing skills that aid professional development. Assessment tools are used to understand preferred communication styles, motivators and competencies, and facilitation of effective collaboration through high-performance team building. Networking, interviewing, presentation, and communication skills are also covered.
Repeat Status: Course may be repeated.

MBA 442 Societal Shifts I 2 Credits

This course will introduce eight societal shifts and the societal divides that each may lead to. The course explores the linkage between the Societal Shifts and the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and focuses on three Societal Shifts in particular, Climate Change, Changing Demographics, and Rapid Urbanization, leading to a focus on Sustainable Cities (SDG 11) and Climate Action (SDG 13), and how society needs to think about sustainable growth in the coming decades.

MBA 443 Societal Shifts II 4 Credits

This course will take an in-depth look at eight societal shifts that were introduced in MBA 442. The societal shifts will be examined in pairs and then integrated to form scenarios for society in the coming decades. The focus is on the impacts of these societal shifts at the industry and individual company level.
Prerequisites: MBA 442

MBA 451 Accounting 1-MBA 1.5 Credit

This course trains students in corporate decision making using financial information that is prepared under mandated accounting principles for external financial statement users. The course also covers accounting practices which provide information for internal users. It studies the use and interpretation of financial statements with a focus on the effect of economic transactions on financial statements and key ratios. Topics include: introduction to financial accounting concepts and principles, the accounting cycle, cost accounting information processing and impact on decision making.

MBA 452 Economics and Markets 1-MBA 1.5 Credit

Fundamental principles and tools of microeconomics with a focus on managerial decision-making. Topics include consumer behavior, input selection, cost analysis, production and pricing strategies in various market structures, decision making under uncertainty, international trade, information asymmetry and organizational design, and game theory as it applies to business strategy. .

MBA 453 Finance 1-MBA 1.5 Credit

This course explores the application of fundamental finance concepts in modern business. Topics covered include Risk and return, Capital budgeting techniques and analysis, financial statement analysis and forecasting, valuation basics, corporate cost of capital, and other corporate finance issues such as capital structure, dividend policy, and working capital policy.

MBA 454 Management - OB/HR 1-MBA 1.5 Credit

This course focuses on understanding human behavior at work and how it is influenced by individual differences, group dynamics, and by the organizational context in which people are employed. Key organizational behavior theories will be applied to fundamental human resource management issues with an emphasis on aligning an organization’s talent with its strategy to maximize performance. Topics will include: staffing and selection, training and development, motivation, performance management, leadership, and optimizing effectiveness by understanding behavioral factors of individuals and groups.

MBA 455 Marketing 1-MBA 1.5 Credit

This course provides a contemporary perspective to introduce the student to the fundamentals of strategic marketing. The course explores the functional marketing operations of organizations and tracks the marketing manager’s decision processes including segmentation and target market development, product/brand positioning and the development of the value proposition, and the integration of the marketing mix elements into a cohesive strategy. Specific learning modules are concerned with the development, evaluation, and implementation of strategic marketing plans.

MBA 456 Strategy 1-MBA 1.5 Credit

Within the context of a multi-stakeholder approach to organizations, strategic management covers overall organizational issues in intent, analysis, strategy formulation, execution, and control within a global environment. The objectives of this course are to provide the student with a better understanding of business organizations and to clarify the way senior managers create and sustain organizational competitive advantage.

MBA 457 Consulting Practicum I 2 Credits

The course enables students to analyze and dissect strategies that speak to market leadership and growth trajectories. The format is intensely interactive. High profile consulting firms shed light on wide-ranging topics from business transformation to board governance. The public company is seen from an analyst or investor perspective. Emphasis is given to the role of CEO as chief strategist and organization builder. The classroom experience comes alive through fast-moving cases and wide-angle discussions with a host of speakers.

MBA 461 Financial Claimants 1-MBA 1.5 Credit

This course will focus on various financial claimants in the modern corporation. The focus will be on the theory behind and practice related to information needs and use by stockholders, bondholders, and other intermediate financial claimants (e.g., preferred stockholders, warrant holders). Coverage will include related governance and agency theory principles as well as the impact of disclosure, fair value accounting, and regulation on financial claimants.
Prerequisites: MBA 451 and MBA 453

MBA 462 Government & Society 1-MBA 1.5 Credit

Economic and strategic analysis of the role of government and social forces in markets and business policies. Topics include environmental controls, consumer protection, antitrust and the promotion of market competition, intellectual property and inventions, and taxation.

MBA 463 Suppliers and Customers 1-MBA 1.5 Credit

Explores how organizations identify customer needs and develop supply chain flows – upstream (backward through the supply levels) and downstream (forward through the channel systems) to deliver goods and services that exceed customer expectations and creates societal value. Covers demand/customer management, supply/capacity planning, raw material/component sourcing, inventory planning, distribution/merchandising, and quality management. Focused on how marketing and supply chain managers make decisions regarding effectiveness vs. efficiency trade-offs. Concerned with the development, evaluation, and implementation of marketing strategy and supply chain.
Prerequisites: MBA 455

MBA 464 Employees 1-MBA 1.5 Credit

This course will focus on the evolving social contract between employers and employees in the modern corporation, their causes and consequences. Topics will build on the basics from the Management OB/HR course from the first session. In particular, coverage will include the following issues: procedural justice and fairness; privacy and freedom of speech; work-life balance, diversity, inclusion, and the bottom line; job security and alternative work arrangements, compensation; employee ownership; performance management and career development.

MBA 465 Consulting Practicum II 4 Credits

Students move from the classroom setting of Consulting Practicum I to the practice or field environment in serving an actual client in Consulting Practicum II. Emphasis is placed on applying analytic, listening, and communication skills through the various stages of a client engagement that include preparation, initial meeting, proposal development, work-in-process, deliverable, and formal presentation at semester’s end. The course challenges students to assume the role of management consultant in creating value through a strategic-level assignment that is time-sensitive.
Prerequisites: MBA 457

MBA 471 Accounting for Executives 3 Credits

MBA 472 Essentials of Economics for Executives 3 Credits

MBA 473 Financial Management for Executives 3 Credits

MBA 474 Marketing Essentials for Executives 3 Credits

MBA 475 Operations and Supply Chain Management for Executives 3 Credits

MBA 476 Talent Management for Executives 3 Credits

MBA 481 Mastering Strategy 3 Credits

Prerequisites: MBA 471 and MBA 472 and MBA 473 and MBA 474 and MBA 475 and MBA 476

MBA 482 Executive Leadership 3 Credits

Prerequisites: MBA 471 and MBA 472 and MBA 473 and MBA 474 and MBA 475 and MBA 476

MBA 483 Digital Strategies for Organization Transformation 3 Credits

Prerequisites: MBA 471 and MBA 472 and MBA 473 and MBA 474 and MBA 475 and MBA 476

MBA 484 Societal Challenges: Implications for Business 3 Credits

Prerequisites: MBA 471 and MBA 472 and MBA 473 and MBA 474 and MBA 475 and MBA 476

Law Courses

LAW 417 Regulatory Environment of Business 2 Credits

This course is designed to provide students with a basic understanding of the various legal, regulatory, and market constraints in which business operates. Students are introduced to the interplay between legislation, regulations, and court decisions in establishing the regulatory environment in which a business operates as well the allocation of power among federal and state authorities. Conflict of law issues will also be explored for businesses that operate internationally. Contract law, forms of business, and ethics are covered in depth.

Management Courses

MGT 416 Managing Talent 3 Credits

The course is fundamentally about understanding and improving the behavior and performance of individuals in the workplace. As such, we will draw upon key theories in organizational behavior to address human resource issues arising from the employment relationship. Topics will address key areas in the talent pipeline from sourcing and selection, training and development, motivation and performance management, to talent management metrics and analytics.

MGT 461 Strategic Management 1 Credit

Strategic Management covers overall organizational issues in determination, analysis, execution, and control within a global environment. This capstone course integrates theories and concepts from production, marketing, finance, and accounting and provides an opportunity to simulate the function of top level management as it relates to the total business environment through a team-based business simulation. Through readings, written assignments, presentations, in-depth group discussions, and a team-based simulation competition, students will broaden their understanding and practice the art of strategic decision making.

MGT 462 Experiential Learning Capstone 3 Credits

The Experiential Learning Capstone in the M2 curriculum immerses students in the study of how historical, iconic companies, under the guise of strategic management principles, created disruptive/game-changing industry innovation. Built on the foundational courses in the M2 curriculum, the capstone integrates classroom lectures with a combination of company visits and externship projects. Students apply their foundational learning in the study of how birth was given to a select set of companies.

Marketing Courses

MKT 415 Marketing Foundations 3 Credits

This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive analytical framework to develop, implement and evaluate competitive marketing strategies that achieve organizational goals and objectives. It explores the functional marketing operations of organizations and examines the key elements of a marketing manager’s decision making process. Examples of learning modules include: customer and market analysis, segmentation, targeting and positioning, marketing mix decisions (product, price, placement and promotion).

MKT 425 Contemporary Topics in Marketing 2 Credits

The objective of this course is to build on the principles learned in Marketing Foundations and study a series of contemporary topics relevant for the marketing function in organizations. The focus is on key factors that are driving changes in the marketplace and the implications to the organization when devising strategies. Students will obtain an understanding of how to identify emerging trends, explore the underlying antecedents and consequences of these trends, and learn how organizations can proactively manage these trends.
Prerequisites: MKT 415

Masters Accounting Courses

MACC 407 Federal Income Taxation 3 Credits

An introductory study of the principles and concepts of federal income taxation of individuals, corporations, partnerships, and fiduciaries; and federal gift and estate taxes. Determination of tax liabilities and opportunities for planning are emphasized. Problem-solving using the source materials of tax law and tax research are important components of the course. Credit will not be given for both MACC 407 and ACCT 307.
Prerequisites: MACC 415

MACC 409 Advanced Federal Income Taxation 3 Credits

An advanced study of the taxation of business organizations, estates, trust, and wealth transfer taxes. Planning and research are the basic components of the course. Problem-solving and written research are emphasized. Credit will not be given for both ACCT 309 and MACC 409.
Prerequisites: ACCT 307

MACC 411 Accounting Information Systems 3 Credits

An introduction to the concepts underlying information systems as they relate to organizational structure, managerial decision making and accounting. The course acquaints students with the reports and documents generated by information systems, as well as procedures and controls employed in a variety of business applications. Students apply these concepts, techniques and procedures to the planning, analysis and design of manual and computer-based information systems. Credit will not be given for both MACC 411 and ACCT 311.

MACC 412 IT Auditing 3 Credits

Addresses internal control and audit issues in an Information Technology (IT) environment. structured around the COSO internal control framework. Audit procedures for the review of IT general and application controls are examined. Students perform substantive tests on financial databases using audit software. Topics covered: Internal controls in centralized and distributed IT environments, IT outsourcing, IT governance, Data modeling, network and database security ACL software, SAP process and control issues.

MACC 413 The Corporate Financial Reporting Environment 3 Credits

This course addresses the nature of corporate financial reporting, its role in providing decision-useful information to capital market participants, standard-setting and the FASB conceptual framework, and theoretical and empirical assessments of its performance.

MACC 415 Intermediate Accounting I 3 Credits

Intensive study of the basic concepts and principles of financial accounting, emphasizing the problems of fair presentation of an entity's financial position, operating results and cash flows. Understanding of the conceptual framework of accounting, review of the accounting process, and recognition, measurement, valuation and disclosure of current assets, fixed assets, and intangibles. Problem-solving skills and critical analysis are stressed. Credit will not be given for both MACC 415 and ACCT 315.

MACC 416 Intermediate Accounting II 3 Credits

The sequel to MACC 415, this course continues with intensive study of recognition, measurement, valuation and disclosure issues relating to such topics as investments, liabilities, leases, pensions, income-taxes, share-based payments, revenue issues, earnings per share, and complexities related to the statement of changes in financial position. Analysis and interpretation of financial statements and problem-solving skills are integral parts of the course. Credit will not be given for both MACC 416 and ACCT 316.
Prerequisites: MACC 415

MACC 417 Advanced Financial Accounting 3 Credits

A study of specialized topics in financial accounting, including partnership accounting, business combinations and consolidated financial statements, segment and interim reporting, foreign currency transactions and translation, and accounting and reporting for governmental and other nonprofit organizations. Involves considerable problem-solving and critical evaluation of controversial theoretical issues. Credit will not be given for both MACC 417 and ACCT 317.
Prerequisites: MACC 416

MACC 419 Auditing 3 Credits

An introduction to auditing theory, objectives, and practices related largely to the responsibilities of independent professional accountants. The auditing environment, generally accepted auditing standards, internal control theory, and reporting alternatives are considered. Exposure to operational auditing is provided. Credit will not be given for both MACC 419 and ACCT 320.
Prerequisites: MACC 415 and MACC 411

MACC 420 Fraud Examination and Forensic Accounting 3 Credits

This course focuses on developing student understanding of forensic accounting and fraud investigation for introduction to the forensic accounting profession. Course provides enhanced knowledge of occupational fraud, with emphasis on financial statement fraud. Topics include the nature/theories of fraud, fraud prevention/detection techniques and the legal and auditing framework for fraud investigation. Course integrates data analytic techniques in fraud examination and detection, analysis of SEC cases involving fraud allegations and incorporates materials provided by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE).
Prerequisites: ACCT 320

MACC 423 Managerial Accounting 3 Credits

An in-depth study of concepts and methods involved in the collection, organization, dissemination and interpretation of information that facilitate operational and strategic decisions. Topics include: product costing; relevant costs for outsourcing and other operational decisions; metrics development; budgeting, performance evaluation; target costing; and transfer pricing. Credit will not be given for both MACC 423 and ACCT 324.

MACC 424 Governance, Risk and Control 3 Credits

This course focuses on developing in students an understanding of corporate governance, risk oversight and internal control monitoring from an accounting professional’s perspective. Topics include agency theory, fundamentals of corporate governance, risk and internal control, functions of the board of directors and the audit committee, independent auditor and impediments to audit quality, internal auditor’s role, and SEC regulations and laws impacting governance, risk and control. Class discussions, interactive group exercises, role plays, field projects, and real-life cases are used.
Prerequisites: ACCT 320 or BUA2

MACC 427 Accounting Research and Regulation 3 Credits

Explores the mechanics of performing professional accounting research through analysis of the authoritative accounting literature applied to emerging accounting issues. While emphasizing U.S. GAAP and the Accounting Standards Codification, students will also work with SEC reporting requirements, PCAOB and AICPA auditing standards, and International Financial Reporting Standards. Students will develop skills to conduct research, determine the appropriate accounting for new and complex business transactions, and document the rationale for the accounting method chosen.
Prerequisites: ACCT 316 or MACC 416

MACC 430 Data Analytics for Accountants 3 Credits

This course uses publicly available financial statement information to programmatically analyze company activities. Obtaining, cleaning, exploring, analyzing with statistical and machine learning methods, and presenting accounting data are explored in a project based format. Non-financial related information analyses are linked to audit and risk assessments. Projects and papers involve actual entities and associated financial information. Credit will not be given for both MACC 430, Data Analytics for Accountants and ACCT 330, Accounting Data and Analytics.
Prerequisites: ECO 045

MACC 490 Business Skills for Accounting Professionals 3 Credits

Enhances key skills necessary to function effectively in a professional accounting environment. Topics include oral and written communication, exercising professional judgment, protecting and upholding professional integrity, developing and maintaining professional relationships, analyzing data to inform business decisions. Weekly participation in the Segal Accounting Distinguished Speaker Series is an integral part of this course.

MACC 491 Internship in Accounting 3 Credits

Supervised internship experience in auditing, tax consulting, corporate accounting of at least eight weeks duration.
Prerequisites: MACC 419

Project Management Courses

PMGT 409 Project Management Fundamentals 3 Credits

Introduction to project management – survey of the knowledge areas and approaches to managing projects. Looks at the relationship of projects to organizational strategy and culture, how to initiate a project, principles of planning and project execution and control, managing stakeholders, and communicating effectively. A review of the competencies required to address the complexities and challenges of projects. Hands-on approach to developing project management work artifacts and simulated project management game are used.

PMGT 410 Project Requirements and Scope Management 1 Credit

Focuses on understanding the principles and nuances of managing project and product scope: the boundaries of inclusion and exclusion of the product – its features and functions, and of the project – the work involved to create the project’s product. Addresses the methods for eliciting and managing product and project requirements, defining the project scope, creating a scope baseline, and managing changes to control scope creep.
Prerequisites: PMGT 409
Can be taken Concurrently: PMGT 409

PMGT 411 Project Scheduling, Estimating & Budgeting 1 Credit

This course explores the methods and challenges of developing project estimates, schedules, and budgets. Expectations about project timelines and costs cause a great deal of friction and frustration in projects. In this course students will learn how to build a schedule using the critical path method, methods for resource loading, developing contingency reserves, and time and cost estimates. They will also learn how to present schedule information to manage expectations and deal with slips when they occur.
Prerequisites: PMGT 409 and PMGT 410
Can be taken Concurrently: PMGT 409, PMGT 410

PMGT 412 Advanced Scheduling & Scheduling Tools 1 Credit

This course deals with developing a schedule in MS Project in a hands-on class. Students will learn to build a fully resource loaded, networked, and baselined schedule in MS Project, and how to manage from that schedule. Students will also explore the principles of critical chain scheduling, dealing with risks in schedules, and using the schedule to forecast outcomes and communicate effectively with stakeholders about time expectations.
Prerequisites: PMGT 409 and PMGT 410 and PMGT 411

PMGT 413 Project Risk Management 1 Credit

As projects always involve a new and unique endeavor to the performing organization, uncertainty is a part of every project. Effective project management prepares for the risks - both jeopardies and opportunities - presented by these uncertainties. In this class we will explore both the classic and some more advanced methods for dealing with project risks.
Prerequisites: PMGT 409 and PMGT 410
Can be taken Concurrently: PMGT 409, PMGT 410

PMGT 414 Managing Project Quality 1 Credit

Students will explore the key concepts of quality management and how they apply in projects. This class discusses the use of the quality management tools and methods, practices for holding quality reviews, and for developing project quality management plans.
Prerequisites: PMGT 409 and PMGT 410
Can be taken Concurrently: PMGT 409, PMGT 410

PMGT 415 Project Procurement & Negotiation 1 Credit

This class focuses on the tools and practices used in managing procurement on projects, and best practices for negotiation and supplier management. It explores the role of the contract, types of contracts, developing the statement of work, RFP, screening & selection criteria, and the procurement management plan. It also looks at how to manage contractors throughout the project.
Prerequisites: PMGT 409 and PMGT 410
Can be taken Concurrently: PMGT 409, PMGT 410

PMGT 416 Decision Making and Ethics on Projects 1 Credit

This class looks at the factors and processes for making effective and ethical decisions on projects. The unknowns, complexities, time and cost pressures, and cross-functional stakeholders make good decision-making imperative for both long-term and short-term success. Students will use a variety of tools and techniques for team decision-making. Class includes a role-play game based on the Challenger accident to explore issues.
Prerequisites: PMGT 409
Can be taken Concurrently: PMGT 409

PMGT 417 Project Leadership 1 Credit

Good management skills alone will not create project success. Leadership, which is much more elusive, is equally if not more important. This class will explore models of leadership and how they apply to projects, styles of leadership, motivation, influence, politics, and dealing with difficult stakeholders.
Prerequisites: PMGT 409
Can be taken Concurrently: PMGT 409

PMGT 418 Facilitation and Teamwork for Projects 1 Credit

This class focuses on the principles and practices of teamwork, an essential element for projects. Students will examine the effectiveness of different types of team structures and maturity levels for teams and organizations. They will learn methods for dealing with conflict, facilitating groups, and the different types of meetings used in projects. This class will use case studies as well as hands-on methods.
Prerequisites: PMGT 409
Can be taken Concurrently: PMGT 409

PMGT 419 Adaptive and Agile Project Management 1 Credit

In this class we will explore the new methods used for more extreme projects – those with more complexity, market acceptance, time pressure, and advanced technology. Students will examine the factors affecting complex projects with cross-functional and dispersed teams as well as principles for Agile project approaches. This class will use case studies as well as hands-on methods.
Prerequisites: PMGT 409 and PMGT 410

PMGT 420 Managing Projects for Innovation 1 Credit

Traditional project management tries to instill discipline in a seemingly chaotic process, but for innovation to thrive we must couple discipline with creativity. In this class students will explore the paradoxes innovations create, and look at ways to remove blocks and spark imagination while producing value for the organization. Case studies and hands-on techniques will be utilized in this course.
Prerequisites: PMGT 409 and PMGT 410

PMGT 421 Project Management Capstone 1-3 Credits

This class is conducted as an independent study and involves applying the principles and practices of the previous project management classes to a real-life project or approved case study. You will develop a set of project documents and provide a critical analysis of the project to demonstrate your mastery of the project management skills prescribed for a predictive (plan-based) project.
Prerequisites: PMGT 409 and PMGT 410 and PMGT 411 and PMGT 413 and PMGT 416

Supply Chain Management Courses

SCM 423 Supply Chain Operations Management 2 Credits

This course provides an essential understanding of managing global supply chains and operations within the context of an integrated value chain. Topics addressed include the fundamentals of supply chain management; supply chain risk management; quality management; demand and supply chain planning, including forecasting, capacity planning, aggregate planning, and scheduling; the components of a lean supply chain; inventory and working capital management; distribution and transportation management; and performance measurement. Special emphasis is given to managing supply chains from a financial perspective.

Professors. Paul Brockman, PhD (Louisiana State University); Shin-Yi Chou, PhD (Duke University); James A. Dearden, PhD (The Pennsylvania State University); Mary E. Deily, PhD (Harvard University); Er Fang, PhD (University of Missouri Columbia); Frank R. Gunter, PhD (Johns Hopkins University); Kathleen W. Hanley, PhD (University of Florida); Richard J. Kish, PhD (University of Florida); Judith A. McDonald, PhD (Princeton University); Chad Meyerhoefer, PhD (Cornell University); Vincent G. Munley, PhD (State University of NY at Binghamton); George A. Nation, III, JD (Villanova University); Nandkumar Nayar, PhD (University of Iowa); Georgette C. Phillips, JD (Harvard Law School); Corinne A. Post, PhD (Rutgers University Newark); Michael D. Santoro, PhD (Rutgers University); K. Sivakumar, PGDRM (Institute of Rural Management); Larry W. Taylor, PhD (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill); Andrew J. Ward, PhD (University of Pennsylvania); Todd A. Watkins, PhD (Harvard University); Xuemin Yan, PhD (University of Iowa); Muzhe Yang, PhD (University of California, Berkeley)

Associate Professors. Liuba Y. Belkin, PhD (Rutgers University); Ravindra Chitturi, PhD (University of Texas at Austin); Beibei Dong, PhD (University of Missouri Columbia); Andreea Kiss, PhD (Georgia State University); Nevena T. Koukova, PhD (University of Maryland); Ernest Kong-Wah Lai, PhD (University of Pittsburgh); Alberto Lamadrid, PhD (Cornell University); Douglas M. Mahony, PhD (Rutgers University); James M. Maskulka, DBA (Kent State University); Oleksandr Nikolsko Rzhevskyy, PhD (University of Houston-University Park); Steven McKay Price, PhD (Florida State University); Marina Puzakova, PhD (Drexel University); Ahmed S. Rahman, PhD (University of California, Davis); Seth Richards-Shubik, PhD (University of Pennsylvania); Naomi B. Rothman, PhD (New York University); Jesus M. Salas, PhD (University of Oklahoma); Charles E. Stevens, PhD (Ohio State University); Ke Yang, PhD (University of Iowa)

Assistant Professors. Felipe Augusto de Araujo, PhD (University of Pittsburgh); Donald E Bowen, PhD (University of Maryland); Ludovica Cesareo, PhD (Sapienza University di Roma); Jee-Hun Choi, PhD (Cornell University); Yoonju Han, MS (Korea University); Ozias A. Moore, Jr., PhD (Cornell University); Ke Shen, MS (Northern Illinois U); Rebecca Jen-Hui Wang, PhD (Northwestern University); Qianqian Yu, PhD (Boston College); Daniel Matthew Zane, PhD (Ohio State University); Haibei Zhao, PhD (Georgia State University)

Professors Of Practice. James Brennan, PhD (University of Wyoming); Luis F. Brunstein, PhD (University of California, Riverside); Joshua Walter Ehrig, MA (Lehigh University); Yuval Erez, PhD (Cornell University); Dale F. Falcinelli, MS (Lehigh University); Loren Kenneth Keim, Jr., MBA (Lehigh University); Robert Kuchta, MS (New Jersey Institute of Technology); Deirdre Trabert Malacrea, MBA (Harvard Business School); Kenneth Mawritz, PhD (Temple University); Olena Nikolsko-Rzhevska, PhD (University of Memphis); Steven L. Savino, MBA (Wake Forest University); Vijay Singh, PhD (Ohio State University); Samuel C. Weaver, PhD (Lehigh University); Patrick J. Zoro, MBA (St Johns University Queens)

Emeriti. J. Richard Aronson, PhD (Clark University); Nicholas W. Balabkins, PhD (Rutgers University); Richard W Barsness, PhD (University of Minnesota Minneapolis); Alden S. Bean, PhD (Northwestern University); Carl R. Beidleman, PhD (University of Pennsylvania); John W. Bonge, PhD (Northwestern University); Stephen G. Buell, PhD (Lehigh University); James Edward Hansz, PhD (University of Cincinnati); Thomas J. Hyclak, PhD (University of Notre Dame); Jon T. Innes, PhD (University of Oregon); Arthur E. King, PhD (Ohio State University); Michael G. Kolchin, DBA (Indiana State University); John R. McNamara, PhD (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute); Anthony Patrick O'Brien, PhD (University of California, Berkeley); Peter P. Poole, PhD (The Pennsylvania State University); Theodore W. Schlie, PhD (Northwestern University); Bruce M. Smackey, PhD (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute); John E. Stevens, PhD (University of Cincinnati); Stephen F. Thode, DBA (Indiana University Bloomington); Robert J. Thornton, PhD (Universtiy of Illinois)

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